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 '\-/0''-.... WATER POWER AND CONTROL COMMISSION 
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. G1!OL :1tCAL SURVEY. 
GR JN
) V", ER BRANCH. 
209 . .CLITY UILDING 
80'SE, AHO 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 


U.G. WItD 


LIBRARY COpy 
STATE OF NEW YORK 


MAPPING OF GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND 
AQUIFERS OF LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK 


Prepared by the Water Power and Control Commission with the Cooperation 
of the U. S. Geo
ogical Survey 


Material Compiled for the Commission 


by 


RUSSELL SUTER 


Consultant 


Geological Data Prepared 
by 
WALLACE DE LAGUNA 


and 


NATHANIEL M. PERLMUTTER 


U. S. Geological Survey 


BULLETIN GW-18 
ALBANY. N. Y. 
1949 




"'."'---
-- 


STATE OF NEW YORK 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
WATER PO'WER AND CONTROL COMMISSION 


MAPPING OF GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS AND 
AQUIFERS O
 LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK] 


Prepared by the Water Power and Control Commission with the Cooperation 
of the U. S. Geological Survey 


Material Compiled for the Commission 


-
 


by 


RUSSELL SUTER 


Consultant 


Geological Data Prepared 


by 
WALLACE DE LAGUNA 


and 


NATHANIEL M. PERLMUTTER 


U. S. Geological 8'WI"Vf::Y 


BULLETIN GW-18 
ALBANY. N. Y. 
1949 




 



STATE OF NEW YORK 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION 
WATER POWER AND CONTROL COMMISSION 


. 


PERRY B. DURYEA ........... .................. Conservation Commissioner-Chairman 
BERTRAM D. TALLAMY ....... ........................ Superintendent of Public Works 
NATHANIEL GOLDSTEIN .."... .."".."......,.,."".... .....",."......., Attorney General 


JOHN C. THOMPSON.......................................................... Executive Engineer 
ARTHUR H. JOHNSON .".,.",.,....."",.....,....".",.,.."""""...', Associate Engineer 
. In charge of Long I$land Office 


U. S. DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR 


OSCAR L. CHAPMAN........ ...,..,............,.....,........................"...........,... Secretary 


. 


GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 


WILLIAM E. WRATHER............................ ....................................... ..... Director 
C. G. PAULSEN ............................................'............. Chief Hydraulic Engineer 
. - 
A. N . SAYRE ............................ ....................,...... Chief, Ground Water Branch 
M. L. BRASHEARS, JR. ",."...""".,."."",........".."".."..,.........., District Geologist 




CONTENTS 


Page 


FOREWORD . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ,Commission. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII 


HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION.............................,....................................... .'.. Suter...........,................. .XI 


P ART I-BASIC GEOLOGIC DATA 


Geologic Correlation of Logs of Wells in Long Island .......... Perlmutter............................. 3 
Geologic History of Long Island.............................................. de Laguna............................ 25 
Tables of Geologic Correlations- 
Kings County...."..............,."..,...........".......,.................... de Laguna............................ 52 
Queens County...........,.....,....".,...,.................................... Perlmutter............................ 58 
Nassau County.................."..".,..,..,.................................,.. de Laguna............................ 86 
Suffolk County........................................ de Laguna and Perlmutter........................... .111 


PART II-TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS AND SECTIONS 
Topographic Mapping of Geologic Formations 
and Aquifers of Long Island .......................................................... Suter.............................141 
Maps and Profiles,....................,......................................................., Suter,........................... .179 


PART III-INFORMATION AND REFERENCES 


Suggestions as to the Use of Maps .................................................. Suter............................191 
Topogra phic Maps of Long Island .................................................. Suter,........................... .195 
Long Island Well Information (on file) ....................
................................................
.......... ..199 
Long Island Ground Water Bulletins.,..,.....................................................,........................... .203 
Bibliography ............................................................................... . Brashears.. .......................... .207 


v 




FOREWORD 
Water Power and Control Commission 




FOREWORD 


In 1945 the Water Power and Control Commission called the attention of the Legislature 
to the fact that the work of administering the provisions of Article XI of the Conservation 
Law in so far as the ground waters of Long Island were concerned was seriously handicapped 
by lack of factual data as to the geology and aquifers of that Island and of even greater dearth 
of practical and tested hydrologic theory by which the effects of pumping of ground water 
could be foreseen, regulated and controlled. 
It, therefore, asked for a special appropriation for this purpose, stating that a period of 
five years would be about the least extent of time in which the work could be completed. Acting 
on this request, the Legislature included an item of $30,000 in the budget appropriations for 
1946-47, and again appropriated the sum of $25,000 in the budget for 1947-48. 
In this present report, the factual data to date are set forth. This material is the essential 
base for theoretical studies and administrative procedure. 
Studies in theoretical and applied ground water hydrology have not as yet gone forward. 
Such work will require the continuous effort of men of certain relatively rare aptitudes and 
interest, and to date it has not been possible to obtain the services of men with these 
qualifications. 
This work is most urgent, and it should be pushed energetically as soon as the necessary 
personnel can be obtained. 
The present report is based on work and contributions of many men and organizations 
extending over a period of a good many years, and without outside aid these results would not 
have been possible. 
The greater part of this work has been done as a cooperative effort with the Geological 
Survey of the U. S. Department of the Interior under the direction of Secretaries Harold L. 
Ickes, Julius Krug and Directors W. G. Mendhall and W. E. Wrather and District Geologists 
D. G. Thompson, R. M. Leggette and M. L. Brashears, Jr. The geologic data used are largely 
the work of Dr. Wallace de Laguna and Nathaniel M. Perlmutter of the local office of the Survey. 
In addition, the people of Long Island have awakened to the fact that their water supply 
presents a serious problem, and the county, city, town, village and district officials, engineers 
and well drillers have been most cooperative and helpful in the common cause. 
For this Commission the work was directed by Executive Engineer Russell Suter until 
his retirement at the end of March, 1948, since which date he has been retained in a consulting 
capacity to complete this report. 


WATER POWER AND CONTROL COMMISSION 


Albany, New York 
November, 1949 


ix 




HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION 
Russell Suter 




'... 


HISTORICAL tNTRODUCTION 


Ground water, partly as spring runs and more particularly as well water, was the sole 
supply of the people of Long Island up to 1917, when the Catskill water suppJv project of the 
City of New York was first introduced into the island boroughs of Kings and Queens. 
Since then the population of the island has increased enormously with resultant increase 
in the draft on the ground water despite the upland water distribution in the west end of 
the island. Pumping difficulties delayed this development somewhat, but the general introduc- 
tion of the deep well turbine pump, which came into general use at the end of World War I, 
made it possible to increase the use of ground water for industrial purposes. 
Early in the 1930's a series of water supply applications from the City of New York and 
various water supply corporations supplying portions of that municipality first made it clear 
that overpumping of ground water had assumed serious proportions and that regulation of 
industrial pumping was essential. Whereupon the Legislature, by Laws of 1933, Chapter 
563, declared that the situation constituted an emergency and charged the Water Power and 
Control Commission with the duty of regulating industrial as well as public water supply well 
pumping. 
It immediately became evident that to perform its functions properly the Commission 
needed more knowledge of the structure of the island, amount of pumping, ground water levels 
and ground water hydrology. . 
The first attempt at an economic study of the geology of water resources of the island 
was made about the time of the search for water by the City of New York which finally 
culminated in the installation of the Catskill supply. These studies are given in the Burr- 
Hering-Freeman report (6) and those of Veatch (9) and Fuller (15). Later they were 
carried on by the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York as shown in the reports 
of Spear (14) and Crosby (11). 
In 1933 a surface ground water contour map was prepared by Thomas H. Wiggin, Con- 
sulting Engineer, and others and introduced as an exhibit in one of the then current water 
supply applications. This showed that in the western part of the island there had been serious 
recession of the upper ground water levels from those previously reported. 
By resolution adopted April 9, 1931, the Legislature had set up a joint legislative com- 
mittee to investigate the potable water resources of the State. This body interested itself in 
the island situation and engaged the cooperative services of the Geological Survey to make 
a study of the ground water levels of the island and the fluctuations of such levels (18). This 
work was continued by the Commission and participated in by the counties of Nassau and 
Suffolk. It still continues and results of observations on ground water levels are published 
annually by the Survey. 
By the Laws of 1936, Chapter 839, the Legislature directed the Commission to study and 
report on this whole subject. An appropriation of $25,000 was made for this, and by later 
legislation this original sum was made advailable over a number of years. The report as required 
by law was made on February 1, 1937, and is known as Bulletin GW-2-"Engineering Report 
on the Water Supplies of Long Island". 
The work done in connection with this earlier report, not all of which was published, 
included a well census covering Kings and Queens Counties, report on ground water consump- 


xiii 



tion published as GW-1, collection of well logs and reports of borings, a geologic study of the 
western end of the island-Bulletin GW-7-and a general engineering report-Bulletin GW-2 
-including redetermination of ground water levels, discussion of the whole problem, pointing 
out of the additional information needed, suggestions and tests as to methods of showing the 
various structures and an outline of the hydrologic questions. 
In continuation of this work, all available well logs were collected, edited by the U. S. 
Geological Survey, and have been published in the GW series of pamphlets. There are now two 
volumes of well logs for each county (GW-3 to 6 and 8 to 11). 
It became apparent that the original concept of a single body of ground water underlying 
the whole island must be modified and that for purposes of study, each aquifer should be con- 
sidered as a unit, although there appear to be numerous interconnections between them. To do 
this required an intensive geologic study of the well logs and the development of a method of 
delineating the formations and aquifers so as to show them in three dimensions and in better 
fashion than was done by Professor Crosby's sections. These last were drawn by projecting 
well logs, frequently somewhat remote onto selected sections, a method which fails to give 
satisfactory results. 
With such data at hand, more elaborate studies of hydrologic conditions will be possible. 
To do this work the present appropriation was asked for and the work has proceeded as 
well as the critical shortage of manpower would permit. 
A new cooperative agreement with an allocation of funds to the Geological Survey pro- 
duced the geological correlations of well logs contained in this report. The well census was ex- 
tended over the whole island. All known wells have been assigned numbers, have been plotted 
on sectional maps and data with regard to them have been filed and classified. The contour maps 
contained in this report were prepared and profiles drawn from them. These it is proposed to 
amend from time to time as more data become available. 
These maps on a larger scale and a full set of profiles have also been made available in 
Bulletin GW-19, "Ground Water Atlas of Long Island," which can be obtained as a whole or 
as separate sheets from the Commission. 
The Commission has not yet been able to secure the services of suitable men to carryon 
the proposed hydrologic studies and that work has perforce been left to the future. The need 
for it is imperative. 
The data given here are in many cases disappointingly vague, must contain many errors 
and certainly lack greatly in precision. But, they are the best that now can be obtained and the 
maps have been drawn, with them as a base, with as much accuracy as is possible. As the data 
are increased by later additions, the maps and profiles will be amended and kept up to date. 
In spite of the unsatisfactory condition of the basic data, it is thought that these maps even 
now will serve as a basis for much needed and contemplated studies of water levels, salt water 
iJ.ltrusion, recharge and interconnections of aquifers which heretofore have been impossible. 
At the end of this report will be found a schedule of references and a statement of the well 
information on file in the Long Island office of the Commission, where they are available for 
public inspection and use. The Commission invites 
uch use and its employees wiil be glad to 
aid the public in using it. 


xiv 



PART 1 
BASIC GEOLOGIC DATA 




GEOLOGIC CORRELATION OF LOGS OF WELLS IN LONG ISLAND 


Nathaniel M. Perlmutter 
Geologist 




CONTENTS 


Page 


INTRODUCTION 
Preface .................................................................,.................,....,..,..... 7 
Previous investigations. .............. .................. ...,.....,.......................,..... 7 
Purpose and scope of present report. ................................................ 8 
PHYSICAL GEOLOGY 
Units of Correlation........................._ ........... .................... ,.................. 8 
Well drilling methods...............................................,........................... 10 
Cable-tool or spudding method....................... ................................ 10 
Rotary method, .., ,.. .. .. . ., , _ , .. .. . "" , " . . ., , ... . .,' .. . ". ., . . .... . .., ,. .,.. .. .,. 10 
Jetting method,......".... ."..,....................................",.,.,..........,.,.,.. 11 
Dri ve-point method.. .. .... .... ........................ ................................... 11 
Other aids to correlation.....................,.....,.....,.......................,............ 11 
Hydrology ............ ... .. . '" ".....,......,......:............ ...... ......................... ., 11 
Paleontology . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . .. , . . . .. .. .. . . . , . . .. . . .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . . .. .. .. . . .. .. ... . . .. . .. . .. ., 11 
Heavy minerals......,. . ... , " ,. .. .' .. .. ,... ..".."..,....""...,.....,............ _.. ... ... 11 
Electrical logging ,."..,...,.........,.........,.,...".,............."..........".....,... 12 
STRATIGRAPHY ...,....,........,.."........................,...............,....,..........,...,. 12 
DESCRIPTION OF THE CORRELATION UNITS AND THE 
CRITERIA USED IN THEIR IDENTIFICATION 
Bedrock ................, ... ... " ,....... .. ......., , ..,. '" ,. .,.. ".., ...... .,.,....,. ." ... '" " . . .. ..' 13 
Upper Cretaceous deposits............................................... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 14 
Raritan formation-Lloyd sand member......................................... 15 
Lloyd sand member-Kings County................................................ 16 
Lloyd sand member-Queens County...... ..................................... 16 
Lloyd sand member-Nassau County........................................... 16 
Lloyd sand member-Suffolk County.............................................. 17 
Raritan formation-clay member....,...,...,..................,..."............,.... 17 
Clay member-Kings County.........,............ ,..,..,........,..,..,..,.......... 17 
Clay member-Queens County".."...........,.,.."........,..........,.....,...... 18 
Clay member-Nassau County.................... ................................... 18 
Clay member-Suffolk County.....,.........",........,........,.......,............ 18 
Magothy (?) formation .........,......,.,.. .,.......................,...............,.,.,.. 18 
Magothy (?) formation-Kings County... ................................... 19 
Magothy (?) formation-Queens County...................................... 19 
Magothy (?) formation-Nassau County...................................... 19 
Magothy (?) formation-Suffolk County.. ................................... 20 
J ameco gravels,........ ., .......,.... ..."..,..,...' , ... .,... ,...... , ....,..,.. .... ., . .,. .. . ." ... .. 20 
J ameco gra vel-Kings County.................................:..................... 21 
Jameco gravel-Queens County.............................,..,........"....,..,... 21 
Jameco gravel-Nassau County...,...,.,.................,.............,........,... 22 
J ameco gravel-Suffolk County.......................,.............................. 22 
Gardiners Clay...."..,...........................,........,..................................,.... 22 
Gardiners clay-Kings County....... ................................................ 22 
Gardiners clay-Queens County.............................................,.,..... 23 
Gardiners clay-Nassau County ................................................... 23 
Gardiners clay-Suffolk County................................................... 23 
Upper Pleistocene deposits................. ................................................ 24 


5 




INTRODUCTION 


Preface 


The rapid growth of population accompanied by expansion of industrial and agrieultural 
activities on Long Island during the past 25 years has resulted in the drilling of large numbers 
of wells for public supply, air-conditioning, industrial, and agricultural purposes. 
The increased usage of ground water has raised many serious problems with regard to the 
conservation and protection of present supplies. Intrusion of salt water into water-bearing beds 
along the shore lines, the lowering of water' levels in certain localities due to over-pumping, 
and estimation of the safe yields of the aquifers are some of the problems which are confront- 
ing Federal, State, County, and municipal agencies concerned with the proper development of 
the ground-water resources of Long Island. 
All of these problems require intensive Island-wide studies of the geologic and hydrologic 
factors affecting the occurrence and movement of ground water. This report deals with the 
geologic phase, and includes information as to the distribution, geologic structure, and thick- 
ness of the unconsolidated deposits on Long Island. It also contains information as to areas of 
recharge of the various aquifers, the nature of the various confining beds, and the physical 
properties of the sediments of which the aquifers are composed. 
The geologic work which forms the basis of this report and the following report by Wallace 
de Laguna was performed under the supervision of M. L. Brashears, Jr., District Geologist for 
New York and New England for the Geological Survey, and was carried on in financial coopera- 
tion with the New York State Water Power and Control Commission whose work on'this proj- 
ect was directed by Mr. Russell Suter, Consulting Engineer, and formerly Executive Engineer 
for the Water Power and Control Commission. Much assistance was furnished by the Nassau 
County Department of Public Works, the Suffolk County Board of Supervisors, and the Suffolk 
County Water Authority and is here gratefully acknowledged.* 


Previous Investigations 
Shortly after the completion of the work of the Burr-Hering-Freeman Commission on 
Additional Water Supply for the City of New York (6), the U. S. Geological Survey in 1906 
published the first systematic island-wide report, by A. C. Veatch (9), on the geology and hydrol- 
ogy of Long Island. This report contains a brief outline of the geology together with geologic · 
correlations for a considerable number of wells drilled prior to 1906, including many of those 
drilled by the Burr-Hering-Freeman Commission. In 1914, a more detailed geologic report 
based upon extensive field work by M. L. Fuller, was published by the Geological Survey (15). 
W. O. Crosby also made studies for the Board of Water Supply of the City of New York (11). 
His report, which contains a number of fundamental geologic differences with the reports of 
Veatch and Fuller, has never been published. A discussion of some of these differing theories 
expressed by these investigators, together with a contour map of the buried pre-Pleistocene sur- 
face of Long Island, based upon information available at that time, is contained in a technical 
paper pu blished in 1937 (27). 
*Compiler's Note. It is understood that the official scientific name of the youngest of the Cretaceous strata 
is Magothy ('!). This symbol is all very well as indicating that the stratum on Long Island may not be the 
same as the Magothy stratum in New Jersey. It is, however, an awkward symbol as written and particularly 
awkward in that it cannot be easily expressed in words, either in dictation or in conversation. Therefore, in the 
geologic report the authors have not always been consistent and have frequently used the. term Magothy with- 
out the question mark. 


7 



In spite of the large amount of data collected by the earlier geologists and engineers, there 
was still much work to be done. It was apparent that there were many places on Long Island 
where geologic and hydrologic data were either lacking or were too vague to be of any real value. 
In 1932, as a result of severe drought conditions and the salting of water-bearing beds in Brook- 
lyn due to overpumping, the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the State of New York 
and Nassau and Suffolk Counties, began a systematic and continuous investigation of the ground- 
water resources of Long Island. A part of this work has consisted of the collection and inter- 
pretation of geologic data from well logs and well samples, and the publication of records of 
significant wells drilled since 1906. 


Purpose and scope of present report 
The tables accompanying this report contain geologic correlations and classifications ac- 
cording to aquifer of most of the important and representative wells drilled on Long Island, and 
include many of the wells published in the early reports of Veatch, (9) Fuller, (15) and Crosby, 
(11) ; as well as most of the wells published by the Water Power and Control Commission since 
1937. (30, 34, 35, 36, 53, 55, 59, 62). Correlations for about 2,000 wells are included in these 
tables. In this report, a geologic correlation of a well is defined as an attempt to group all of 
the sediments penetrated by a well into specific geologic units. This is shown in the correlation 
tables by indicating the contacts between the surfaces of the various stratigraphic units in 
terms of mean sea level. This report, which describes the water-bearing formations of Long 
Island is followed by a report of the geologic history of Long Island. 
Cross-sections and contour maps have been prepared which show the thickness, geologic 
structure and distribution of the maj or geologic units found on Long Island. These have been 
drawn by the New York Water Power and Control Commission with the assistance and guid- ' 
ance of the writer and Wallace de Laguna of the Geological Survey. Many of the geologic corre- 
lations included in the accompanying tables were made by various members of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey who have worked on Long Island at one time or another since 1932. During the 
early years, the studies were made by D. G. Thompson, F. G. Wells, Watson Monroe, and H. R. 
Blank. The geologic work was continued by R. M. Leggette, M. L. Brashears, Jr., and C. M. Rob- 
erts. In the fall of '1946, the authors began a re-study and re-evaluation of all of the earlier cor- 
relations and have prepared original correlations for many wells drilled since 1938. 


PHYSICAL GEOLOGY 
Units of Correlation 
Keeping in mind the limitations imposed by the nature of the data and the necessity for 
utilizing the results of this report for hydrologic studies, the geologic units shown in Table 1 
were selected and found to be most practicable. 
Each of the units has a common geologic origin, representing material deposited at approx- 
imately the same time by a common agency of deposition. A variety of materials may be present 
in each unit but each consists predominantly of a specific lithologic .type such as the J ameco 
gravel, or the clay member of the Raritan formation. The units may comprise part of a single 
geologic formation as in the case of the Lloyd sand member of the Raritan formation. Or the 
unit may consist of several formations of a similar lithologic nature as in the case of the upper 
Pleistocene deposits, which include all material laid down after the close of Jacob time. 
The selection of the geologic units here used is based to some extent on the fact that almost 
all of the available information is in the form of logs, compiled by well drillers and supplemented 
by a smaller number of logs compiled by geologists from microscopic examinations of well samples. 
Subdivisions of the geologic column therefore depend largely upon lithologic differentiation, 
general stratigraphic relationships, and mineralogical composition. In most instances standard 
correlation criteria such as fossil and mineral content, grain size, color and sorting were not 
available since this type of information is not included in ordinary well logs. A great deal of 


8 



reliance has, of necessity, been placed on a relatively small number of examinations of samples 
made by geologists who have had an opportunity to follow the drilling of wells in the field, or 
have examined samples collected through the cooperation of local well drillers. 


TABLE I. -STRATIGRAPHIC SEQUENCE AND CORRELATIONS OF MESO- 
ZOIC AND CENOZOIC FORMATIONS ON LONG ISLAND 


AGE VEATCH FULLER 
Recent Post Glacial Recent 
and Recent 
.S .5 
m m 
!=: Harbor Hill !=: Harbor Hill 
0 0 
t) Ronkonkoma t) Ronkonkoma 
m m 

 
 


CROSBY 


PRESENT 
REPORT 


Recent deposits 


................................................ ............................................... 


Glacial 


Upper Pleistocene 
deposits 


------------------------------------------------- 


Pleistocene 



 
(I) 
m 
m 

 
...t:: 
!=: 

 
.... ..... ............. ...........,............. 
 


Tisbury 
(Manhasset) 
gravel 


Hempstead 
Gravel 
Montauk till 
Herod gravel 


Jacob sand 


Sankaty 


Gardiners 
clay 


Gardiners clay 
(includes Jacob sand 
if present) 


J ameco 
gravel 


J ameco 
gravel 


J ameco 
gravel 


................................................ ............................................... 


------------------------------------------------- 


Mannetto 
gravel 


Mannetto 
gravel 


... 


? 


.... ........................- ................................................ ............................................... ...................................... ..................................... 


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 


Pliocene 


Sankaty 
Pensauken 
Lafayette 


............................. .................... ........................... .................. ............................. ...................................... ...................................... 


---------------------------------------------------------------.------------------- 


Miocene 


Kirkwood 
Bethpage 


........................ ..... ...................................................... ................ ................................. .................................... 
 ............................................. 


---------------------------------------------------------------.------------------- 


Upper 
Cretaceous 


Higher 
Cretaceous 
beds 
Matawan 
Raritan 


Higher 
Cretaceous 
beds. 
Matawan 
Magothy 
Raritan 


Monmouth 
Matawan 
Magothy 
Raritan 
Potomac 


Magothy (?) for- 
mation * 
Raritan formation 
Clay member 
Lloyd sand mem- 
ber 


*May include beds younger than Magothy in age which have not yet been differentiated. 


Legend: 


Comformable contact 
Unconformity 


Transition 


9 


of- Mcuuaetto Glavel Considered By Th
 U. S, Geological Smvey to Be of douhttu1 Ter1tazy 
e?) Age. 



Well drilling methods 


The method used to drill a well or test boring affects the reliability of the log, the accuracy 
of the samples collected, and the subsequent correlation of well samples. It is important there- 
fore to be acquainted to some extent with the various methods of drilling, and procedures for 
obtaining samples, in order to properly evaluate drilling information for geologic purposes. The 
cable-tool and hydraulic-rotary methods are the principal methods used for drilling on Long 
Island. Jetting and drive-point methods have been used only to construct shallow, 'small 
diameter wells. 
Cable-tool or spudding method: Most of the water wells greater than 4 inches in diameter 
and less than 600 feet in depth are constructed by this method. The well casing is driven down 
by dropping a heavy weight upon it or is bailed down by removing material at the bottom of 
the casing with a bailing device. The latter has the effect of causing the casing to settle slowly 
of its own weight as material is removed. Most wells require a com blnation of driving and 
bailing. A heavy steel bit, raised and lowered by a cable, is used to drill through hard layers 
of tough clays, pyrite, cobbles, and large boulders. This method is also known as drop-tool 
drilling or churn drilling. 
Samples collected by this method of drilling are in most cases fairly reliable for geologic 
studies if properly collected. The materials penetrated by the casing are picked up in the 
bailer, hoisted to the surface and dumped on the ground. Certain precautions are necessary 
to prevent contamination or mixing of samples from different horizons. This is most apt to 
occur when the hole is drilled or bailed too far ahead of the casing in a caving or weak forma- 
tion. Another source of contamination is careless dumping of material from the bailer upon 
previously deposited cuttings and subsequent collection of mixed samples from the pile. Con- 
tamination of samples from the critical Pleistocene-Cretaceous contact zone is a frequent' 
source of difficulty in correlating well samples. Contamination takes place when the casing is 
driven across the contact before the well is thoroughly bailed out at the change of formation. 
When accurate undisturbed samples are desired for geologic or mechanical analyses, drive 
core samples are taken. The coring device generally consists of a 2-inch pipe about 3 feet 
long with a hinge valve at the bottom, which is driven into the undisturbed beds below the 
casing by means of a heavy drill stem attached to a set of drilling jars. 
Rotary method: Most of the deep wells on Long Island are drilled by the hydraulic- 
rotary method. The hole is cut by a rotating bit connected to a string of hollow steel drill rods. 
A drilling fluid composed generally of a suspension of red-colored Raritan clay mined in 
New Jersey mixed at times with clay conditioners is pumped down through the hollow rods, 
emerges through holes in the bottom of the bit and flows back up to the surface, laden with cut- 
tings, in the annular space between the drill rods and the wall of the hole. A casing is not inserted 
until drilling of the hole has been completed. Continuous circulation of drilling mud enables 
material pentrated by the drill to be brought to the surface and by mudding the wall of the 
hole prevents major caving before the casing is inserted in the hole. Many of the wells in the 
old Flatbush franchise area of the New Y ork Water Service Corporation in Kings County 
were drilled by this method as were also a number of other deep wells on Long Island. 
One of the chief advantages of this method of drilling is the great reduction in drilling 
time for deep wells. However, most of the samples collected by this method have proved to 
be unsatisfactory for geologic studies as the unconsolidated sediments on Long Island fre- 
'quently cave during drilling operations. In addition, the sorting action of the hydraulic process 
separates most of the fine sands and clays from the coarser materials. The samples are collected 
in a trough or mud ditch at the land surface, quite frequently in a highly contaminated condi- 
tion due to caving of the hole, re-circulation of material, or incomplete removal of material 


10 



before drilling deeper. It is believed that the correlations for a number of the earlier deep 
wells were based upon examinations of much contaminated rotary well samples. This has led 
to considerable confusion in interpreting well logs, particularly in Kings and Queens Counties. 
Jetting methods: Much of the data available for the northern parts of Kings and Queens 
Counties are based upon information from test borings for City Tunnels 1 and 2. The' primary 
purpose of these borings was to determine the depth and character of the bedrock. The casings 
in many instances were washed in rapidly with relatively little attention being given to the 
details of the overburden. These logs, therefore, lack the details found in logs of water wens 
where the record of the overburden is of maj or importance. 
Drive-point method: Where the water table is close to the surface and a small supply of 
water is desired for domestic purposes, small diameter wells are frequently constructed by 
driving a well-point and attached pipe to relatively shallow depths. Many wells of this type 
have been driven along the south shore of Nassau and Suffolk Counties. Little information of 
geologic importance can be obtained from the records of such wells. 


Other aids to correlation 


Hydrology: Much hydrologic information in the form of pumping test data, interference 
studies, and hydrographs from automatic water-stage recorders has been obtained by the 
Geological Survey. In most instances the hydrologic data substantiates geologic correlations. 
Hydrologic interference between wells screened in the J ameco gravels in Kings and Queens 
Counties has been recorded on many occasions by the Geological Survey (68). Mutual inter- 
ference has also been observed between several wells screened in the Lloyd sand member of 
the Raritan formation in Queens and Nassau Counties by Leggette (32). Jacob has also noted 
a similar effect between Lloyd wells situated in the southern part of Queens an
 Kings Counties 
( 46) ( 49). In much of the remainder of Long Island, much hydrologic data has been obtained 
in water-table wells. 
Paleontology: Fossils visible to the naked eye are rarely found in Long Island sediments. 
Only in the case of the Gardiners clay, a marine inter-glacial deposit which contains shells, 
shell fragments, foraminifera, and diatoms (33), has such evidence been of val\1e for corre- 
lation purposes. Fossil plant leaves, spores, and small pieces of lignite have been found in 
many of the Cretaceous beds but these have not been studied in much detail. 
Marine Cretaceous fossils are rarely found in Long Island sediments since the formations 
are predominantly terrestrial in character. A few specimens were noted in the early reports 
of Veatch (9) and Fuller (15). In several instances it has been shown that some of the 
"Cretaceous" fossils mentioned in these earlier reports are of Pleistocene rather than Creta- 
ceous age. in addition, many of the Cretaceous fossils noted in other early papers on Long 
Island geology have been found in Pleistocene drift deposits, and consequently are of no value 
in identifying the strata in which they are found. In most cases, it has been found that the 
presence of shells in a sediment is a fairly safe indication that the deposit is probably not older 
than Pleistocene in age. It should not be assumed that all shell-bearing layers are from the 
Gardiners clay, a subdivision of the Pleistocene, since shells are frequently found in later 
Pleistocene sediments and also in recent clays. Shell-bearing layers from formations older 
than Pleistocene in age may be found in unexplored parts of the Island but the data are 
very meager. 
Heavy minerals: In some coastal plain areas where paleontologic data are scarce, heavy 
mineral studies have been used to trace beds over somewhat limited distances. This technique 
involves the separation of minerals from sand residues according to specific gravity of the 


II 



minerals. Widely scattered samples from the same horizon are then examined for similar 
minerals or suites of minerals. Whether this procedure could be used to define certain beds 
occurring throughout Long IsI;tnd, is a matter upon which one can only speculate at present 
since neither the facilities no
/time have been available to make a large scale study of this 
type. If the heavy mineral composition varies as much from place to place horizontally as does 
the lithology, particularly in the case of the Magothy (?) formation where the need for differ- 
entiation is greatest, then this technique will be of little value in future correlation studies. 
Electrical logging: Electrical logs have recently been procured for a few deep wells. 
These have not yet been studied in sufficient detail to determine their usefulness in geologic 
classification of the Long Island sediments. Thus far a preliminary examination of these logs 
has not yielded much additional information beyond a differentiation of the log into major 
geologic units which can also be readily determined from well samples. Electric logs can only 
be obtained from uncased rotary wells. 
Usually the first 100 or 150 feet of record are missing due to the installation of casing in 
rotary-type wells to prevent caving at the surface. In some instances this prevents logging 
of the critical Pleistocene-Cretaceous contact. Electrical logs also record the relative salinity 
of the water-bearing formations since the conductivity of the strata will vary directly as the 
chloride content of the formation water. Electrical logging might be of assistance in corre- 
lating certain beds within the Magothy (1) formation but here again the rapid lithologic 
variations horizontally characteristic of this formation cast considerable doubt upon the 
feasibility of this method. Logs are now available for wells at Long Beach, Westbury, Baldwin, 
and Bay Park in Nassau County and for two wells at the Brookhaven National Laboratory 
in central Suffolk County. 
The logs of some of the deep abandoned cased wells in Kings County and elsewhere 
might be checked by radioactivity logging but would be handicapped by lack of basic control 
data to interpret a log of this type on Long Island. 


STRA TlGRAPHY 


Long Island is composed of consolidated rocks overlain by loose unconsolidated sediments. 
The consolidated rocks are dense metamorphic and igneous basement rocks of pre-Cambrian 
age. The unconsolidated sediments overlie a southeasterly sloping bedrock platform, and consist 
of upper Cretaceous and Pleistocene sands, gravels, and clays. (See table 1, Stratigraphic 
Sequence for Long Island). 
The Cretaceous sediments rest directly upon bedrock and are divided into the Raritan 
formation and the overlying Magothy (?) formation. The Raritan formation which has long 
been recognized as the equivalent of the Raritan formation of New Jersey, is composed of a 
sand member (Lloyd sand member) and a clay member both of which are widely distrib- 
uted on Long Island. The Magothy (?) formation, which consists of a great thickness of 
alternating fine sands, clays, silts, and some coarse b
ds of sand and gravel, is thought by 
some geologists to represent a northeasterly thickening of the Magothy formation of New 
Jersey. This correlation has never been satisfactorily established and it is probable that the 
so-called Magothy formation of Long Island includes not only the equivalent of the Magothy 
formation of New Jersey but also some of the younger Cretaceous beds in New Jersey. The 
primary reasons for the failure to solve this problem are the marked change in lithology 
between the Cretaceous beds of Long Island and those of New Jersey and the lack of paleon- 
tological data in the Long Island sediments. 


No definite occurrences of Tertiary strata are indicated by present evidence, but their 


12 



complete absence cannot be verified since much of the southeastern part of the Island is 
relatively unexplored. Tertiary beds undoubtedly occur offshore to the southeast. 
In contrast to earlier reports, the Pleistocene deposits are here divided into only three 
groups. Each of these is essentially a hydrologic unit and is distinctive enough to be recognized 
in well logs and samples. The oldest fluvio-glacial deposit, the Jameco gravel, is separated from 
the upper Pleistocene outwash by the Gardiners clay, an inter-glacial deposit. The Manetto 
gravel is not included as a separate unit in this report because of the difficulty in recognizing 
the formation in well logs or samples. Further, the Manetto does not appear to be of hydro- 
logic importance as it is of limited horizontal distribution and probably is hydrologically 
connected with other Pleistocene'deposits wherever it occurs. 


DESCRIPTION OF THE CORRELATION UNITS AND'THE 
CRITERIA USED IN THEIR IDENTIFICATION 


Bedrock 
The bedrock floor of Long Island consists predominantly of pre-Cambrian schists and 
gneisses. Locally, as in northeastern Kings and northwestern Queens Counties, there are 
occurencies of granodiorite. A narrow band of limestone cuts across the promontory pro- 
jecting into the East River near well Q 375 in Astoria. This belt of limestone continues 
beneath the East River between Welfare Island and northwestern Queens County. It is shown 
on Berkey's geologic map of New York City (19). Outside of this small area it is not likely 
that limestone occurs in any significant amount. The metamorphic rocks have been invaded 
in places by pegmatitic and granitic instrusions such as was encountered at well 'Q 1030 in 
Rockaway Park, Queens. There bedrock was found to be a normal granite showing no signs 
of metamorphism (67). It has been thought by some geologists that diabase intrusions and 
sandstones of Triassic age might possibly extend from the mainland of Connecticut over to 
Long Island but no reliable occurrences of Triassic rocks have been observed anywhere on 
Long Island. 
The greatest concentration of bedrock data occurs in the northwestern part of the Island 
where hundreds of bedrock test borings were made in connection with pre-construction studies 
for City of New York Water Tunnels 1 and 2. The amount of bedrock information decreases 
rapidly to the east, so that in Suffolk County, which includes almost two-thirds of the land 
area of Long Island, there are only about 5 wells that are known to have been drilled to bedrock. 
A decayed or weathered zone is usually encountered over the bedrock except in the north- 
western corner of the Island where glacial scouring has removed most of these deposits. In 
most other places, the residual weathered deposits have been preserved by a mantle of 
Cretaceous sediments. The zone of decay appears to range from 5 feet to as much as 100 feet. 
It commonly consists of red, gray, yellow, white, green, or mottled colored clay; or sandy clay 
with partially decayed rock and mineral fragments. Where good core samples are available 
a definite graduation from sound rock to an almost pure clay can be observed. Frequently some 
doubt exists as to whether the clay immediately overlying bedrock is the lower part of the 
Lloyd sand member of the Raritan formation or is actually weathered rock. If samples are 
available, a geologist can usually determine the age of the material in question. Decayed 
bedrock usually contains some indication of the original minerals of which the rock was 
composed such as angular, ragged quartz grains and pieces of garnet, biotite, amphibole, 
pyroxene, feldspar or the altered equivalents of these minerals. In some instances, the residual 
clays appear to have been reworked and redeposited. These deposits exhibit a finely laminated 
structure indicating subaqueous deposition. In these instances, the clays should be considered 
as Cretaceous in age. 


13 



In northern Kings and northwestern Queens Counties, where bedrock lies close to the 
surface and is overlain chiefly by coarse glacial deposits, drillers occasionally confuse large 
buried glacial boulders with the bedrock surface. 
The strike of the buried surface of the bedrock floor is approximately northeast-southwest. 
It has a dip of about 80 feet per mile, and a relief of as much as 100 feet in the northwestern 
part of the Island (64). The strike assumes a more easterly direction toward the eastern part 
of the Island and the relief is probably considerably less where the Cretaceous covering has 
protected the surface from glacial scouring. In general, the bedrock surface is a gently inclined 
southeasterly sloping peneplain. 
In Kings County, well records indicate bedrock ranges in depth from about 50 feet to 
700 feet below sea level. It crops out at the surface in Queens County near Long Island City 
and Astoria, and dips to about 1,100 feet below sea level in the southeastern part of the County. 
In Nassau County its depth ranges from about 160 feet to an estimated depth of about 1,800 
feet below sea level, increasing toward the southeast. Beneath Suffolk County, bedrock ranges 
in depth from about 400 feet below sea level at Lloyd Neck to an estimated depth of about 2,200 
feet in the south-central part of the County. 
Most wells which tap bedrock usually produce water of poor quality and insufficient 
quantity. The occurrence of a good supply depends upon the penetration of water-bearing 
joints and fractures, whose locations are impossible to predict in advance. Bedrock wells on 
Long Island are few in number and are confined almost entirely to the industrial sections of 
Long Island City and Astoria in northwestern Queens, where bedrock lies close to the surface 
and only a thin veneer of impermeable till overlies ,it. The salinity of the water in most of the 
rock wells near the East River is high but some wells yield fresh water. Drilling several hundred 
feet into bedrock has usually proven to be a fruitless task since bedrock is the lowest limit 
of profitable drilling for water on Long Island. 


Upper Cretaceous deposits 


The Upper Cretaceous deposits on Long Island are represented by the Raritan formation 
and Magothy (?) formation. It is usually possible to distinguish between these two formations 
in well logs. This is not always the case, however, since the distinction is primarily lithologic 
and is subj ect to some variation depending upon local depositional environment. The contact 
is commonly marked by a change from the basal coarse sands and gravels of the Magothy (?) 
formation to the solid clays of the Raritan formation. This problem is further discussed in 
the detailed descriptions given below. 
The contact between the Pleistocene and the Cretaceous deposits is an erosional uncon- 
formity with considerable relief and in most places is marked by an abrupt lithoJogic and 
mineralogic change. In some places, the mineralogic differences provide the best evidence, in 
others the lithologic differences are more easily recognized. Since the determination of the 
depth of this contact and the lithologic and mineralogic differences on either side of it is of 
considerable importance, some of the major criteria used in establishing the contact will be 
emphasized. 
A common feature helpful in establishing the contact surface, is an abrupt change from 
the coarse clean sands and gravels of the Pleistocene to the silty clays, fine sands, and solid 
clays of the Cretaceous. The Cretaceous sands are composed of minerals which have been sub- 
ject to long weathering and consequently consist only of chemically stable minerals or the 
highly altered equivalents of the less stable minerals. The chief mineral constituents are angular 
quartz grains with much smaller quantities of tourmaline, rutile, zircon, kaolin, partially or 


14 



completely kaolinized muscovite, and weathered white chert grains. Carbonaceous material as- 
sociated with pyrite or marcasite is commonly observed in Cretaceous samples. 
Although the Pleistocene deposits are chiefly characterized by coarse texture, they may 
also consist in part of sandy clays, solid clays, and fine sands. When these materials overlie sim- 
ilar Cretaceous deposits, it is very difficult to determine the Pleistocene;:{Jretaceous contact 
from a well log without the aid of samples. Glacial sands may contain all the minerals found 
in the Cretaceous sediments, and in addition usually contain a significant amount of rock frag- 
ments such as gneiss, schist, granite, pegmatite, diabase, sandstone, limestone, shale; and min- 
erals such as amphibole, pyroxene, fresh muscovite and biotite, chlorite, and unweathered 
feldspar. Some of the glacial clays contain shell fragments, partially carbonized wood or other 
fairly fresh organic material. 
Careful interpretation is called for where only a small amount of typically Pleistocene ma- 
terial is present since the glacial deposits in some localities may be composed of a large per- 
centage of re-worked Cretaceous material. Contamination of samples is another factor which 
also must be kept in mind in correlating well samples. This is more fully discussed under meth- 
ods of well drilling. 
Color alone is not a sufficient criterion for differentiating between Cretaceous and Pleisto- 
cene deposits. In general, the Cretaceous sediments are light or brightly colored except where 
a high percentage of lignitic material imparts a dark gray or black color. Most of the glacial 
sands are rusty brown in color due to iron staining but they may also be gray, white or tan in 
color. Brown iron-stained zones are also frequently observed in the Magothy (?) formation, 
and therefore it should not be taken for granted that a brown colored sand is Pleistocene in age. 
Red has often been considered a characteristic Cretaceous color but some of the late Pleistocene 
till deposits in Kings and Queens Counties, and other Pleistocene clays are also reddish colored. 
Green-colored clays may result from the presence of large amounts of glauconite or chlorite and 
may be of Pleistocene or Cretaceous age. Some of the residual clays resulting from the weather- 
ing of the bedrock are also greenish in color due to the presence of chlorite, hornblende and 
other green-colored mineral constituents of the original rock. 


Raritan formation-Lloyd sand member 


The lower water-bearing sandy portion of the Raritan.formation is referred to as the Lloyd 
sand member of the Raritan. It was first defined by A. C. Veatch (9), who named it after Lloyd 
Neck, a locality in northwestern Suffolk County where several old wells derive water from this 
aquifer. The Lloyd sand member does not crop out at the surface anywhere on Long Island. It 
extends an unknown distance northward beneath Long Island Sound where it is probably over- 
lain by younger Cretaceous, Pleistocene, or Recent sediments depending upon how much erosion 
occurred during or after Cretaceous time. The upper surface of the Lloyd slopes in a southeast- 
erly direction. It varies in thickness from about 20 feet in northwestern Queens to about 300 feet 
or more in southeastern Suffolk County. 
The water-bearing zones in the Lloyd sand member consist of medium to coarse sands and 
fine to medium gravels. They consist almost entirely of clear quartz. The coarser particles com- 
monly exhibit a sub-angular to rounded water-worn appearance: Lithologically the Lloyd 
varies from beds of fairly clean coarse sand and gravel to fine sandy clay, clayey sand, and very 
thin layers of clay. The amount and nature of the clay present varies considerably from local- 
ity to locality. The coarse zones in some places do not yield as much water as might be expected 
due to the presence of much clay in the pore spaces between the coarse material which reduces 
its permeability considerably. This is exemplified by test wells recently drilled at the Brook- 


15 



haven National Laboratory in Suffolk County where the yield from the Lloyd was relatively 
small despite the considerable amount of development to which the test wells were subjected. 
The Lloyd sand seems to consist of two or three water-bearing zones separated by layers 
of clay or less permeable zones which are commonly very thin but which may be as much as 
40 feet in thickness. The layers of clay in the Lloyd cover large areas but do not appear to be of 
Island-wide extent. A pumping test by Jacob (49) at well Q 1030 at Rockaway Park in Queens 
County shows that the entire thickness of the Lloyd sand at that locality acted as a hydrologic 
unit despite the presence of intraformational layers of clay. This hydrologic property appears 
to be characteristic of the Lloyd in many other parts of Long Island. 
The Lloyd sand is everywhere overlain by the clay member of the Raritan formation except 
possibly at the western end of the Island, and on some of the necks in the northern part of 
Nassau County. The clay provides an impermeable cover for the Lloyd sand member and thus 
the Lloyd is a true artesian aquifer. Recharge may occur by means of valleys cut through the 
Raritan clay, valleys which are now filled with more permeable material of late Cretaceous or 
Pleistocene age; or by slow seepage of water through the clay into the Lloyd sand. In the 
western end of the Island, particularly in Kings County, Pleistocene deposits are in direct 
contact with the Lloyd. As the water level in Lloyd observation wells in Kings County and 
western Queens County stands higher above sea level than in Pleistocene wells in Kings County, 
it is believed that the Lloyd is continually discharging water into these Pleistocene beds. 
Lloyd sand - Kings County: The limiting line of the deposits roughly bisects the 
County along a northeast-southwest line. According to present correlations, the Lloyd sand 
member is missing in the area north and west of the limiting line shown on the accompanying 
contour map of the Lloyd. This absence may be due either to non-deposition or erosion of the 
Lloyd, and subsequent deposition of younger Cretaceous or Pleistocene deposits directly upon 
bedrock. The elevation of the upper surface of the Lloyd ranges from about 250 to 680 feet 
below sea level. Its thickness ranges from about 100 feet to about 250 feet, increasing toward 
the southeast. The Lloyd sand may be in contact with the Jameco gravel in parts of Kings 
County where it forms part of the walls of buried valleys filled with the Jameco gravel. Records 
for six Lloyd wells are shown in the accompanying correlation table for Kings County. Only 
2 of these wells, industrial wells in southeastern Kings County, are in use at present. 
Lloyd sand member-Queens County: The Lloyd sand member underlies all of Queens 
County except a small area in the northwestern part of the County where bedrock rises close 
to the land surface. It appears to be missing also in the vicinity of La Guardia air field and 
in a small area near Whitestone in the northeastern part of the County. The absence of the 
aquifer, as in Kings County, may be the result of either erosion or non-deposition. The aquifer 
thins out rapidly in the northwestern part of the county, suggesting that this area may repre- 
sent the original limit of deposition of the Lloyd. The elevation of the top of the Lloyd ranges 
from about 100 to 900 feet below sea level. Its thickness ranges from about 2 feet in northern 
Queens to over 300 feet in southeastern Queens. The Lloyd sand takes on increasing impor- 
tance as an aquifer in Queens County where it is tapped by a number of industrial and public 
supply wells. 
Lloyd sand member-Nassau County: Except for a small area near the nQrthern tip of 
Manhasset Neck, the Lloyd sand member appears to underlie all of Nassau County. The top of the 
Lloyd ranges from about 100 to 1,400 feet below sea level, and its thickness ranges from about 
60 to 300 feet. More Lloyd wells have been drilled in Nassau County than in any of the other 
three Long Island Counties. Most of the Lloyd wells in Nassau County are situated along the 
north and south shores and many of them yield large quantities of water by natural flow. In 
many places along the shore lines, particularly on the south shore, the Lloyd sand is the only 
aquifer from which moderate to large supplies of fresh water can be pumped. Most of the 


16 



Lloyd wells in Nassau County are used to furnish public supplies, although a number of indus- 
trial and estate wells tap the aquifer wherever no other satisfactory water-bearing ij.orizon 
is present. 


. Lloyd sand member-Suffolk County: Although only a few wells have been drilled into 
the Lloyd sand member in Suffolk County, the small amount of data available indicates that 
the aquifer is present beneath all of the County. Information on the extent and character of 
the Lloyd sand in Suffolk County is confined to a few wells located in the northwestern section 
of the County, two recently drilled test wells at Brookhaven National Laboratory near the 
center of the County, and two wells on the north fluke in the extreme northeastern part of the 
Island. In Suffolk, the top of the Lloyd ranges from about 200 to an estimated 1,700 feet below 
sea level. The aquifer thickens from about 150 feet at Lloyd Neck in the northwestern part of 
the County to over 300 feet in the southeastern part of the County. Fresh, water is obtained 
from most Lloyd wells in Suffolk, but only salt water has been pumped from Lloyd wells at 
Crane Neck Point on the northeast shore of Smithtown Bay (well S 91) and at Orient Point 
(well S 189). All water in the Lloyd sand in Suffolk County is under artesian pressure, and 
flowing wells may be expected along the north and south shores where the land surface is 
close to sea level. 


Raritan formation-clay member 


The clay member of the Raritan formation on Long Island typically consists of laminated 
silty and solid clays with subordinate sandy layers. Light and dark gray colored clays are most 
commonly observed, with beds of red, white, yellow, and mottled clays being less frequently 
reported. Layers of lignite and pyrite interbedded with carbonaceous clays are found through- 
out the member over the entire Island. Plant spores, leaves, and lignitized wood are abundant 
at various depths. These carhonaceous layers have not been' traced horizontally for any great 
distance. Marine fossils have never been reported from the Raritan clay member. 
The clay member covers the Lloyd sand throughout the Island except at the western end, 
where much post-Cretaceous erosion has occurred. Valleys formed during several cycles of 
erosions may have cut entirely through the clay in various parts of the Island, and thus possiby 
afford avenues for downward percolation of water to recharge the Lloyd sand member. Sandy 
layers within the clay member also probably assist downward movement of water through the 
clay member. 
Clay member-Kings County: The limiting line of the Raritan clay member can only be 
roughly drawn in Kings County due to the lack of data and the uncertainty of the correlation 
of a number of deep wells in the Flatbush section of the County. The northwestern limit of 
the clay member appears to roughly parallel the limit of the overlying Magothy (?) formation 
but in some places it extends somewhat further to the north and northwest. In the southeastern 
portion of the County, the clay member overlies the Lloyd sand member whereas in a few 
places in northeastern Kings County, the clay member rests directly upon bedrock. 
The irregularities of the contour lines shown on the accompanying contour map of the 
Raritan clay member, are due chiefly to the unusual erosional features which characterize the 
upper surface of the clay member. In northern Kings County accurate correlation of the clay 
member in well logs is obscured by the lithologic resemblance of the clay member to overlying 
Pleistocene clays. 
In Kings County the clay member ranges in depth from about 60 feet at Greenpoint in 
northern Kings to about 500 feet below sea level in southeastern Kings County, and its thickness 
ranges from about 30 to 220 feet, increasing toward the south. 


17 



Clay member-Queens County: The clay member appears to underlie the entire County 
with the exception of parts of the northwestern section of the County, and in the vicinity of 
the mouth of Flushing Bay. Test borings in this area, at La Guardia Airfield, revealed glacial 
sands and clays resting directly upon bedrock. 
The elevation of the upper surface of the clay member varies from about 25 feet above 
sea level in northern Queens County to about 600 feet below sea level at Far Rockaway. Its 
thickness ranges from about 30 to 300 feet, increasing toward the southeast. 
Clay member-Nassau County: Except for scattered erosional irregularities in and around 
the north shore necks, the clay member extends throughout the remainder of Nassau County. 
It appears to be completely eroded beneath parts of Great Neck and the northern part of Man- 
hasset Neck. These old erosional channels, now filled with younger permeable deposits, readily 
permit downward percolation of water into the underlying Lloyd sand. In at least one area, 
Port Washington, heavy pumping from Lloyd wells has caused an inflow of sea water through 
these old channels. Extensive buried valleys in the Raritan clay member may exist in other 
areas but available data is too meager to determine their existence, if they do exist. The top 
of the clay member ranges from about 16 feet above sea level at Great Neck to about 1,100 
feet below sea level on the barrier beach in southeastern Nassau County, and its thickness 
ranges from about 60 feet to 300 feet. 
Clay member-Suffolk County: Only a very limited amount of data concerning the clay. 
member is available for Suffolk. Deep wells, which penetrate the clay, are confined to the 
northwestern corner of the County, two wells at Brookhaven National Laboratory in central 
Suffolk County, and two wells on the north fluke at the northeastern end of the Island. The 
top of the clay here ranges from about 100 to 1,400 feet below sea level. The thickness of the 
clay ranges from about 100 to 300 feet. The accompanying contour map of the top of the clay 
is of necessity highly generalized. It is quite conceivable that buried valleys which cut though 
the clay may exist in the County but well data is too mea
er to permit the identification of 
such features. 


Magothy (1) formation 
The beds included within this unit represent the uppermost Cretaceous deposits on Long 
Island. The application of the name Magothy to these beds originated largely through the work 
of some of the early investigators who believed that they represented a northeasterly thick- 
ening of the Magothy formation which crops out in New Jersey. The question mark following 
the term Magothy indicates the present uncertainty regarding the exact geologic age of the 
great thickness of sediments on Long Island included within the term. Inability to differentiate 
the unit at this time has greatly influenced the decision to continue the use of the questionable 
term Magothy (?) formation in this report. 
The Magothy (?) deposits consist chiefly of fine clayey sands, fine sands, silts, layers of 
solid clays, and several coarse water-bearing zones composed of sand and gravel. The most 
commonly observed colors of the beds are light and dark gray, brown, buff, yellow, and occa- 
sionally some red and pink layers. The thickest and most extensive of the wa..ter-bearing zones 
occurs in the lower part of the Magothy (?) formation, just above the Raritan clay. 
The Magothy (?) consists almost entirely of angular clear quartz and contains small 
amounts of chert, kaolin, partially kaolinized muscovite, and dark heavy minerals. The coarser 
beds commonly consist of subangular to rounded milky quartz pebbles. Lignitic material is a 
fairly common constituent of the deposits along the south shore. The lignite may be brown or 
black, may consist of tiny particles or large chunks in which the original fibrous structure of 
the wood is still very apparent. Pyrite or marcasite, a brassy, metallic-looking sulphide of iron 
is frequently associated with the lignitic material as scattered nodules or in thin solid layers. 


18 



The layers of solid clay in the Magothy (?) formation resemble those found in the Raritan 
clay member but are not as thick or as extensively distributed as in the latter. 
In many places the upper part of the Magothy (?) formation is too fine in texture or too 
clayey in composition to yield large quantities of water, but thin water-bearing zones, 4 or 5 
feet thick, are found at various depths and yield satisfactory amounts of water for domestic 
purposes. 
Magothy (?) formation-Kings County: Less than 10 wells penetrate the Magothy (?) 
formation in the entire County and the limits and distribution of the formation are not clear. 
However, the small amount of data available indicates that the Magothy beds probably do I 
not extend beyond an imaginary line, trending northeast-southwest roughly from Ridgewood 
to Fort Hamilton. The absence of the formation in the northwestern part of Kings may be the 
result of erosion, non-deposition or a combination of both. Within the franchise area of the 
old Flatbush plant of the New York Water Service Corporation, the Magothy beds have been 
almost entirely removed. Many of the present correlations indicate that glacial sands and clays 
rest directly upon the Raritan formation in that area. As far as is known none of th
 wells in 
Kings County that tap the Magothy are being operated at present. 
The elevation of the upper surface ranges from about 180 feet to 245 feet below sea level. 
A maximum thickness of about 280 feet is attained in the southeastern part of the County. 
M agothy ( ? ) formation - Queens County: About three-quarters of Queens County is 
underlain by the Magothy (?) formation. In the northwestern part of the County where 
bedrock and the Raritan formation lie at shallow depths, the Magothy is not present. As 
shown on the accompanying contour map the most conspicuous topographic feature on the 
Magothy surface in Queens County, is a deep valley extending from southern Queens toward 
the northeastern part of the County. 
The formation is tapped by many wells in Queens that are used for air-conditioning and 
public supply purposes. Most of these are situated in the southern and eastern part of the 
County. From an elevation of about 15 feet above sea level in northeastern Queens the surface 
of the Magothy drops to about 350 feet below sea level in the deep buried valley where it 
passes beneath the barrier beach in southern Queens. In the County, the formation ranges in 
thickness from about 30 to 400 feet. 
Magothy (?) formation-Nassau County: All of Nassau County is underlain by the 
Magothy (?) formation except for a few sm
ll areas along the necks and bays on the north 
shore, where glacial erosion has removed these beds. The most important of these are situated 
at the northern tips of Great Neck and Manhasset Neck. In a few places along the north shore 
the Magothy (?) crops out at the land surface, but in many instances the beds have been badly 
disturbed by ice shove and show local arching and faulting of the beds. These outcrops have 
been described and mapped by Fuller (15). 
A remnant of the original Cretaceous highland, often referred to as the "core of the 
Island", is represented by the hilly area in east-central Nassau County where the Magothy 
beds rise to at least 220 feet above sea level and are overlain by only a relatively thin mantle 
of glacial deposits. The buried surface of the Magothy slopes gently to the south and north 
from the highland area. Westward, it drops off rapidly to below sea level while to the east 
of the highland area it slopes gently to the east and remains above sea level for some distance 
into Suffolk County. Re-entrants in the surface of the Magothy along the north shore coincide 
approximately with the southerly extensions of existing valleys along the north shore, and 
suggest the former existence of larger and deeper embayments. Most of the north shore necks 
or peninsulas are underlain by cores of the Magothy lying at relatively high elevations. Deep 
buried valleys of the type and extent of thQse situated in Kings and Queens Counties do not 


19 



appear to be present in southern Nassau County. The upper surface of the formation ranges 
from. about 220 feet above sea level in east-central Nassau to about 150 feet below sea level 
at Long Beach. Its thickness ranges from about 60 to 800 feet. In many parts of Nassau County, 
where the Gardiners clay is missing, the upper beds of the Magothy are in contact with and 
closely connected hydrologically with the overlying beds of Upper Pleistocene age. As a result 
the ground water in the Magothy frequently exists under water-table conditions and does not 
exhibit artesian conditions common to the lower beds of the Magothy. 
More wells have been drilled into the Magothy (?) formation in Nassau County than in 
any other part of Long Island. The coarse beds just above the Raritan clay are tapped by 
many public supply wells, particularly those for the principal south shore communities; as 
at Freeport, Rockville Center, Lynbrook, and Valley Stream. The increase in withdrawals by 
these rapidly growing communities may cause an inflow of sea water in the future as the salt 
water has already been drawn into the Magothy beneath the Long Beach area to the south. 
Magothy (?) formation--Suffolk County: Except for the western part of the County, 
limited areas along the southern barrier beaches, and a small area in the vicinity of the Brook- 
haven National Laboratory in the central part of the County, little is known of the topography 
and depth of the upper surface of the Magothy (?) formation. Outside of these areas infor- 
mation as to the depth of the Magothy consists of widely scattered well logs which make it 
impossible to contour the surface beyond Lake RonkonkOIna, with any degree of certainty. 
The high Cretaceous terrace which exists in eastern Nassau County continues eastward 
into Suffolk where at places such as in the West Hills area it rises more than 300 feet above 
sea level. East of the West Hills area, the surface of the Magothy descends gradually and lies 
below sea level in the eastern half of the County, except for the region near Port Jefferson. 
There, evidence from a few wells indicates that the Magothy surface rises somewhat above 
sea level in a small area. It seems probable that most of the high ground in the eastern part of 
Suffolk County consists of Upper Pleistocene rather than Cretaceous deposits. 
Buried valleys of pre-Pleistocene age may exist in several places in the County but the 
details of these important buried features can only be brought out by a widespread pro- 
gram of test drilling. A suggestion of such a valley is indicated by the unusual thickness 
of the upper Pleistocene deposits in the Nissequogue River Valley near Smithtown. Along 
the south shore of Suffolk County, considerable doubt' exists reg
rding the depth of the 
top of the Magothy. This situation is due primarily to lack of well samples. Because of the nature 
of the sediments the age of these deposits cannot be easily established from a study of well 
logs, but must be based on detailed microscopic studies of the mineral and fossil assemblages 
in the sediments in that area. Only well logs are now available. 
In the western part of Suffolk County, many domestic wells draw water from thin coarse 
zones in the upper part of the Magothy (?) formation. Private companies seeking larger 
quantities of water for public supply purposes, generally have to drill wells several hundred 
feet or more in depth before a satisfactory zone is penetrated. A test well at Brookhaven 
National Laboratory showed that large supplies of fresh water are available from the lower 
part of the Magothy (?) formation in central Suffolk County. 
The top of the buried Magothy surface ranges from about 300 feet above sea level in the 
West Hills to an unusual depth of 250 feet below sea level at one locality on the south fluke. 
The thickness of the Magothy increases from about 230 feet in northwestern Suffolk to about 
1,000 feet in the southeastern part of the County. 


Jameco gravel 
The Jameco gravel is consider
d to be one of the earliest of the Pleistocene outwash 
deposits on Long Island. Some indications of an older deposit, the Mannetto gravel, have been 


20 



observed in eastern Nassau and western Suffolk Counties. In other parts of Long Island, the 
Mannetto gravel was either never deposited or has been removed by later erosion. In this report, 
the Mannetto deposits are not recognized as a separate unit but if present have probably been 
included with later Pleistocene beds due to the difficulty in separating the gravels in well logs. 
The Jameco gravel is most extensively distributed in Kings and Queens Counties and in 
a small area in southern Nassau County. The distribution and extent of the gravels in Suffolk 
County is at present not well known. ' 
The J ameco either rests unconformably on the Cretaceous deposits or on bedrock in 
northwestern Kings County. In turn it is overlain by the Gardiners clay. The name Jameco 
was first introl:luced by A. C. Veatch (9), who applied it to the water-bearing sands beneath 
the Gardiners clay at the J ameco pumping station of the City of New York situated in southern 
Queens County. As typically developed in the western part of the Island, the Jameco deposits 
consist predominantly of dark brown, dark gray or multi-colored beds of coarse sand and 
gravel containing some cobbles, boulders, and scattered layers of silt and clay. In contrast to 
the Cretaceous deposits, the J ameco contains very little quartz and is composed chiefly of 
fragments of fresh granite, diabase, gneiss, schist, sandstone, shale, and pegmatite. It contains 
also grains of chemically unstable minerals such as felspar, amphibole, pyroxene, biotite, and 
chlorite. The pebbles and grains of the J ameco are usually well rounded and water worn. The 
composition of the deposits may vary somewhat from place to place depending on the source 
of the outwash material. 
In the type locality at the western end of Long Island, the gravels lie 100 or more feet 
below sea level and are overlain by beds of Gardiners clay which confine the water in the 
Jameco gravels under artesian pressure. Numerous breaks or channels in the clay permit 
direct recharge of the Jameco from overlying deposits of Upper Pleistocene age. The forma- 
tion has a gentle southward slope, and nowhere crops out at the land surface. 
Jameco gravel-Kings County: The Jameco beds can be tapped by wells almost everywhere 
in tl).e County except the northern and northwestern sections. The limits of the deposit are 
indicate
 on the accompanying contour map of the Jameco. Its thickness ranges from about 
50 to 150 feet. The thickest beds occur as valley fill deposits in deep pre-glacial valleys which 
cross the county from northeast to southwest. The elevation of the upper surface of the J ameCQ 
ranges from about 100 to more than 200 feet below sea level. The aquifer has, in the past, 
been an important source of water for public supply in the Flatbush section of Kings County. 
Heavy pumping caused gradual encroachment of sea water. The resultant contamination of 
the aquifer necessitated complete abandonment in 1947 of all the remaining public supply 
wells in Kings County. 
At the present time only a few industrial wells draw water from the Jameco gravels in 
Kings County. The aquifer may take on renewed importance as a source of ground water for 
cooling purposes if the water temperature of the upper Pleistocene deposits continues to rise 
due to excessive recharge of warm wa.ter from recharge wells. 
Jameco gravel-Queens County: The area in which the Jameco is developed to the greatest 
degree lies in the southern part of Queens. Except for a few isolated remnants the J ameco 
is absent in the northwestern part of the County. The top of the J ameco ranges from 
about 80 to 250 feet below sea level. It lies at greatest depths in the vicinity of Rockaway 
Beach in southern Queens. The thickness of the Jameco ranges from 30 to 150 feet, being 
thickest where it fills pre-Pleistocene valleys. 
The irrgularities of the upper surface of the Jameco, as shown on the accompanying 
contour map, suggest that some erosion of the J ameco surface may have taken place before 
deposition of the overlying Gardiners clay. The aquifer is tapped in southern Queens County 
by many public supply wells. Intrusion of salt water from Jamaica Bay has caused abandon- 


21 



ment of some of these J ameco wells which are situated near the northern shore of Jamaica 
Bay. However, the Jameco wells to the north, though heavily pumped, still yield fresh water. 
Records from water stage recorders operated by the Geological Survey indicate that pumping 
of wells screened in the J ameco formation in southern Queens causes a widespread drawdown 
of the piezometric surface, and that the pumping wells mutually interfere with one another. 
Jameco gravel-Nassau County: The Jameco gravel has been indentified in Nassau County 
with certainty only in a narrow fringing area along the south shore. There, the deposits range 
in thickness from about 25 to 4 feet and are relatively unimportant hydrologically in Nassau 
County. There are deep lying outwash deposits in the north shore embayment which resemble 
both the Jameco and the Upper Pleistocene. However, as they are discontinuous and are not 
covered by Gardiners clay, it seems more appropriate to place them in the Upper Pleistocene. 
Jameco gravel-Suffolk County: The meager data available at present indicates that no 
extensive beds of J'ameco gravels lie beneath the south shores of the County. The deep lying 
glacial gravels in the north shore embayments, although they resemble somewhat the Jameco, 
have been correlated as Upper Pleistocene deposits because they appear to be more closely 
related to the local beds of Upper Pleistocene than to the deep Jameco gravels of Kings and 
Queens Counties. Early investigators tentatively classified certain gravel beds in the eastern 
and northern parts of Suffolk County as part of the J ameco formation. Folding caused by the 
thrust of the Pleistocene ice sheets has so obscured true stratigraphic relations that certain 
identification of the beds cannot be made. However, as along the south shore, these gravels 
are hydrologically unimportant. 


Gardiners clay 


A sharp lithologic change from gravel to clay marks the contact between the subaerial 
outwash deposits known as the Jameco gravel and the overlying Gardiners clay, a marine 
interglacial formation. The clays contain warm water fauna and were probably deposited 
under conditions similar to those which prevail in the bays along the south shore of Long Island 
at the present time. 
The Gardiners normally consists of a dark gray or greenish gray silty clay containing 
woody material, diatoms, foraminifera, and fragments of larger shells; chiefly pelecypods and 
gastropods. In some places, the Gardiners may consist of fine sand, sandy clay, and scattered 
discontinuous lenses of coarse sands; 5 or 10 feet thick. The minerals in the sand residues 
consist of angular quartz, biotite, chlorite, muscovite, amphibole, and pyroxene. It may also- 
contain glauconite in varying amounts. This mineral may have been derived from the rework- 
ing of Tertiary or Cretaceous beds which in places contain glauconite. 
The Gardiners clay is the only formation on Long Island which can now be traced from 
place to place on the basis of fossil content. Even this procedure is rendered difficult by virtue 
of the fact that much of the fauna resembles or is identical to existing types. The Gardiners 
clay is not everywhere fossiliferous. The amount of fossil material present varies from rare 
to abundant in different localities indicating local variations in depth of water and environment. 
Sea level in Gardiners time was at least 50 feet lower than the present level and no beds 
of Gardiners clay are known to occur above this depth except where they have been pushed 
up by folding due to the movement of Upper Pleistocene ice sheets. 
Gardiners clay-Kings County: The accompanying contour map of the formation shows 
that the Gardiners clay underlies all of the County except a narrow belt along the East River 
and Newtown Creek in the northern part of the County. In these areas it is believed that the' 
clay was eroded in some places and in other places was never deposited. 


22 



Correlation of the formation in the Williamsburgh and Greenpoint sections ha
 been 
hampered by the presence of clays geologically younger than the Gardiners clay, and the 
dissection of the Gardiners surface which in some places has left the formation as an putlier 
surrounded and overlain by younger glacial deposits. 
The formation has a gentle slope southward and its upper surface ranges from 50 to 180 
feet below sea level. Its normal thickness is about 50 feet, but in the northern parts of Kings 
County, where the unit rests on bedrock, it is generally only about 10 feet thick. In the buried 
valleys in the central part of the County it may in places have a thickness of nearly 100 feet. 
In some places the formation consists chiefly of sand and probably does not provide a 
very tight seal over the underlying J ameco gravel. This enables recharge of the J ameco to 
take place and also results locally in the occurrence of water table conditions in the Jameco 
formation which normally is under artesian pressure. 
Gardine-rs clay-Queens County: The Gardiners is readily identified in the southern half 
of the County, where it overlies the Jameco gravels. Near the central part of the County the 
Gardiners clay overlaps the J ameco and rests directly on the Magothy (?) formation. In the 
vicinity of Newtown Creek in the northwest part of the County, the Gardiners lies directly on 
the Raritan clay member, or bedrock. The presence of younger clays in this area hampers 
geologic correlation as it does in Kings County. In the northern embayments a depth criterion 
alone is not enough to identify the clay since it is known that Upper Pleistocene valley fill 
deposits extend in places to a depth of as much as 100 feet below sea level. 
The upper surface of the Gardiners, which has been considerably eroded in places, ranges 
from 50 to 200 feet below sea level. Its thickness ranges from about 10 feet to 150 feet, the 
latter representing an unusual thickness observed in a well located in a buried Pleistocene 
valley in the southeastern part of Queens County. 
Ga1'dine-rs clay-Nassau County: The Gardiners clay extends from southern Queens into 
the southern part of Nassau County, appearing as a fringing deposit beneath the south shore 
areas of Nassau County. It overlaps the Jameco and in its northernmost extension rests directly 
on the Magothy (1) formation. 
The upper surface of the Gardiners clay dips gently to the south and ranges from about 
40 to 100 feet below sea level. It ranges from about 20 feet to 60 feet in thickness. 
Ga-rdiners clay-Suffolk County: Very little is known of the occurrence and distribution 
of the Gardiners clay in Suffolk County. There are several reasons for this situation. Primarily, 
there are broad areas in the County which are devoid of information. Secondly, certain --clay 
beds at the eastern end of the Island which were correlated as Gardiners clay by earlier 
investigators have been folded by ice shove and pushed up above sea level so that their strati- 
graphic relationship to the deep-lying Pleistocene clays in western Long Island is somewhat 
obscure. Finally, the superposition of lithologically similar beds of different geologic age beneath 
the south shore of the County has made a clear cut separation of the upper 200 feet of sediments 
in that area very difficult. These beds consist in part of fossiliferous glauconitic clays that have 
been classified by different investigators as Gardiners clay, as part of the Magothy (?) forma- 
tion, and even as Tertiary beds. Both Veatch and Fuller (9) (15) considered that the 
northern limit of the Tertiary formations lay to the south of Long Island. 
The age of these deposits apparently cannot be determined by a superficial examination 
of well samples, but requires detailed micropaleontologic studies of samples from many wells. 
The available data suggests that the Gardiners clay probably underlies the entire south 
shore of the County and extends inland in the eastern part of the County for an unknown 
distance. At Brookhaven National Laboratory in the central part of the County where the 
clay has been detected in some core samples from test wells. In the western 'part of the 


23 



County the clay extends inland a short distance and wedges out over the rising Cretaceous 
highland. In the Peconic River valley near Riverhead in eastern Suffolk County, the thick 
clays reported in driller's logs have been correlated as Upper Pleistocene valley filling deposits 
but some of these clays may actually be of Gardiners age. 
The surface of the Gardiners clay lies about 65 feet below sea level at the Brookhaven 
National Laboratory and about 100 feet below sea level in the shore areas to the south. At Gar- 
diners Island, the Gardiners clay has been folded and lies above sea level. Its thickness is quite 
variable. It is only about 10 feet thick in some wells at the Brookhaven Laboratory and may be 
up to 50 feet thick along the south shore. The maximum thickness is unknown since the south 
shore beds have not been satisfactorily correlated. 
An unusual depth for the Gardiners clay is indicated at well S 184 near Sag Harbor in the 
southeastern part of Suffolk County. At that locality, Lohman (33) has identified Pleistocene 
diatoms at a depth of about 260 feet below sea level. 


Upper Pleistocene deposits 
The remaining glacial deposits not assigned to one of the previously described Pleistocene 
formations are referred to in this report as upper Pleistocene. It includes the Manhasset for-' 
mation which Fuller (15) correlated with the Illinoian stage of the Pleistocene glaciation; and 
the till, terminal moraines, and outwash deposits of Wisconsin stage. (9) (15). 
A wide variety of materials is found in the upper Pleistocene of Long Island. The deposits 
include beds of fine to coarse stratified sand and gravel, boulder clays or tills consisting of un- 
stratified mixtures of clay and boulders, and some fresh water lake deposits composed of silt 
and clay. The upper Pleistocene consists of a heterogeneous mixture of rock fragments of all 
types, quartz, biotite, muscovite, amphibole, pyroxene, feldspar, and limonite. The outwash de- 
posits in Nassau and Suffolk Counties are frequently low in rock and mineral particles and con- 
sist chiefly of yellow-stained and clear quartz. The clayey till deposits are best developed in 
northern Kings and Queens Counties where the imperviousness of the till occasionally requires 
drilling into bedrock to obtain water. The terminal moraine deposits composed of unstratified 
sand, boulders and clay, underlie most of the elevated areas of the Island. The youngest moraine, 
the Harbor Hill moraine, extends along the north shore to the eastern extremity of the north 
fluke. The older Ronkonkoma moraine forms a ridge across the central part of the Island and 
extends to the eastern end of the south fluke. The outwash deposits are best developed south of 
the Ronkonkoma moraine but also occur in the area between the moraines particularly in Suf- 
folk County. 
The upper Pleistocene deposits are commonly thickest beneath the moraines. They may be 
as much as 200 feet thick in Kings and Queens Counties, and probably attain a thickness of 
about 300 feet in Suffolk County beneath the highest points of the Ronkonkoma moraine. The 
thickness of the Upper Pleistocene deposits is considerably less than the figures mentioned above 
in those parts of Nassau and Suffolk Counties underlain by a core of high Cretaceous deposits. 
The upper Pleistocene deposits extend to a depth of about 150 feet below sea level in parts of 
Kings County and may occur at greater depth in some of the north shore embayments. 
Most of the wells drilled on Long Island are screened in the upper Pleistocene deposits 
where unconfined water table conditions exist except locally where clayey till deposits support 
perched water tables. 
Recent deposits consisting of beach sands, river and bay silts, and muds are included in the 
Correlation Tables under the heading, "Recent and Upper Pleistocene deposits". These deposits 
are not very thick in most places and for that reason are not classified separately. These recent 
bods of clays and silts help to protect the underlying permeable deposits from the encroach- 
ment of sa
t water which completely surrounds the entire Island. 


24 



GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF LONG ISLAND 


Wallace de Laguna 
Geologist 




CONTENTS 


Page 


INTRODUCTION ...........................................,."............,.................,.,.,.,.,..., 29 
GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF THE BEDROCK ......................................... . 30 
THE CRETACEOUS SEDIMENTS "..,..,."..................,..,....,.'....,...,.".,,.... 32 
TERTIARY HISTORY .............................. ............. ......'..,...... .... .............. 37 
PLEISTOCENE HISTORy...... ................................ ..,.... ... . ........... , 39 




INTRODUCTION 


In order to understand the complex interrelation of the geologic and hydrologic units found 
on Long Island it is essential to understand clearly the geologic history of the'Island and the 
manner in which the events of that history determined the physical make-up of the various units 
and their present distribution underground. This comprehensive viewpoint is required both to 
interpret the data obtained from individual wells and other underground borings, and to pro- 
vide a basis for comparison from well to well. 
The geologic history however must for the most part be based on and derived from the 
same well records which one is also called on to interpret. For this reason the advantages of an 
historical analysis becomes greater as more and more well records are made available for study. 
In areas where wells are far apart, or where the data available are either lacking in detail or 
are unreliable, little can be deduced as to the history of the area and a clarification of the record 
is not possible. Where more information is available, a more nearly complete history may be 
established, and this in turn may then be used to interpret new data, or to predict the un- 
derground conditions in advance of drilling. Considerable judgment is required therefore in 
interpreting the record, for a premature decision as to the history of an area, that is one which 
is in error because it is based on inadequate data, will result in an incorrect evaluation and 
analysis of later information obtained in that area, thus compounding the error and concealing 
the truth. 
In the following history of the geology of Long Island an attempt is therefore made to dis- 
tinguish between well established events from which deductions may safely be made, and theories 
which although they serve to suggest answers to many of the problems are themselves problems, 
the solution of which requires the critical evaluation of data which are not yet available. Unfor- 
tunately, well established events are few in number. 
The geologic history up to the beginning of Cretaceous time is important for only two facts, 
(1) the bedrock over a wide area had been worn down to a nearly level surface, and (2) con- 
tained two long narrow patches of diabase. One of these now forms the Palisades of New Jersey, 
while the other forms East Rock and West Rock at New Haven, and continues north to and along 
the valley of the Connecticut River. Since the Palisades strip must have supplied the diabase 
found so abundantly in the Pleistocene Jameco gravel, there is a suggestion that the Jameco 
gravel was formed by a stream which had followed the Hudson Valley, and that the Jameco 
gravel may have been deposited only in the western part of the Island. 
The Cretaceous history is one of deposition on the rock floor mentioned above. The Lloyd 
sand and the clay member of the Raritan formation resemble the corresponding beds in New 
Jersey, but the overlying formations, the so-called Magothy sands, are not comparable. The Long 
Island Cretaceous deposits appear to be fluvial rather than marine, and individual beds can be 
traced for only short distances. The important hydrologic problems are the hydraulic inter- 
connection between aquifers, the method by which ground-water descends from the Pleistocene 
water-table beds to recharge the artesian Magothy formation, and in particular the pattern of 
flow through the Raritan clay into the underlying Lloyd sand. What little is known of the geo- 
}ogic history of this period suggests alternative answers to these questions. 
There are no records of early Tertiary events on Long Island. As far as we know, the late 
Tertiary and the early part of the Pleistocene were dominantly periods of erosion. A great deal 
of material was eroded and removed, but virtually nothing is known of the erosional pattern de- 


29 



veloped. There may be buried valleys dating from this period in almost any part of the Island, 
although the possibility of Long Island Sound having once drained westward now seems to be 
ruled out by well records. But because these buried valleys may exist is no reason for assuming 
that they do, and all of the known facts, including the overdeepening of Long Island Sound, can 
be explained without them. These buried valleys, if they existed, would be of considerable im- 
portance to the water supply of Long Island. 
During the Pleistocene we know, from records in other parts of the country, that the con- 
tinental ice sheet advanced four separate times, but it is not certain that the ice reached as far 
south as Long Island on each of these occasions. There are records of three widely separated ad- 
'¥- 
vances, the Manneto, the J ameco, and the three here presumed Wisconsin fluctuations repre- 
sented by the Montauk, the Ronkonkoma moraine, and the Harbor Hill moraine. For each of 
these ice advances there must have been a drop in sea level and local erosion, as well as the 
more obvious deposition of moraine and outwash. For each of the interglacial periods there 
must have been a corresponding high sea level and presumably interglacial deposition. 
The actual record however is very fragmentary. The only interglacial deposit so far identi- 
fied is the Gardiners clay, of importance hydrologically because over wide areas it forms the 
bottom of the water table aquifer, and locally seals underlying sands and gravels, particularly 
the Jameco gravel in Brooklyn. 
The rest of the glacial deposits however, except for the Jameco gravel, act as one hydro- 
logic unit, and the deciphering of the history of late Pleistocene and advances and retreats of 
the ice offers little hope of contributing materially to our understanding of the hydraulics of 
ground-water resources of the Island. 


GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF THE BEDROCK 


Most of the bedrock which underlies Long Island is of pre-Cambrian age, to science. 
Little is lost to us however from our lack 0 f knowledge of these most distant ages, for 
these rocks are all of low permeability and ar e not important sources of well water on Long 
Island. We can properly start our history perhaps a billion years later when in Permian 
time and in the early part of Triassic time, the previously mountainous surface of the land 
was slowly worn away until it was a flat or ge ntly undulating plain, at or .near the sea level 
of that time. This slow erosion effectively removed all traces of earlier mountains or valleys. 
The next major geologic event, which took place a short time later, was the formation of 
the Triassic red beds and trap rock of New Jersey and Connecticut. The deposition of these 
sediments and the formation of the related igneous rocks was preceded by a cracking of the crust 
of the earth on a magnificent scale, the zone of fractures running from the Bay of Fundy south 
to the Carolinas. Two fracture zones of this group are important to the geologic history of Long 
Island. One of these ran north from New Haven and formed the east side of what is now the 
Connecticut Valley, the other ran southwest through the north-central part of New Jersey 
along a line marked roughly by Trenton and Bayonne. 
A large block of the crust of the earth, bounded in part by these two fracture zones, 
slowly sank during the later part of the Triassic period and formed an immense depression. 
Into this trough, as it was formed, was swept layer after layer of mud, silt, sand and gravel, 
which for reasons that have never been entirely explained, are now largely bright brick-red 
in color. While these materials were being deposited by running water, layers of rock were 
also formed by intermittant outpourings of molten lava. Some of this lava reached the land 
surface and spread out in great sheets, and some of it was forced between the recently formed 


30 



 
Ma'lmetto Gravel Considered 13y Tbe U. S. Geological Survey to Be of doubtful Terita:ry (Pioeene?) Age. 



beds of clay and sand, far beneath the surface. This lava hardened into the strong britt
 black 
trap rock which now forms the Palisades, the Watchung Mountains of New Jersey, anjd some 
of the ridges in the Connecticut Valley. 


As this huge trough filled up with sediments and lava it sank still farther and it was 
not until near the close of Triassic time, that the deposition and the sinking stopped. Earth 
forces were then released which compressed the trough and arched up the beds within it. 
At the same time the crust beneath all or most of the eastern part of the United States was 
also raised, although there is little evidence that it was folded or crushed. Then began another 
long period of slow wearing down of the land surface until, some millions of yeflrs later, it 
had once more been reduced to a nearly level featureless plain at or near sea level. This plain 
has been named the Fall Zone peneplain. 


The slow erosion which formed the Fall Zone peneplain extended through approximately 
all of the Jurassic period into the early part of the next time interval, the Cretaceous period. 
This protracted wearing down of the land removed a large part of the Triassic red beds 
and trap as well as vast amounts of the older bedrock. The products of this erosion were 
carried far from their source and their final resting place has not yet been discovered. It is 
possible that they are now covered by the ocean. Remnants of the Triassic rocks are now 
found on the west bank of the Hudson River in New Jersey, and in a long belt running 
north from New Haven, Connecticut. These two patches, large as they are, are all that remains 
of a much more extensive body of similar material. There is every reason in fact to believe that 
the Triassic rocks once covered all of the area that is now Long Island. It is not known whether 
they were entirely removed from this area during the formation of the Fall Zone peneplain, and 
it is possible that the belt of Triassic rocks exposed at New Haven passes under the Sound and 
underlies central Long Island in the area between Port Jefferson and Riverhead in Suffolk 
County. Granite gneiss however was encountered by test wells drilled at the Broo
haven 
National Laboratory at Upton in central Suffolk County. The presence of Triassic rock, either 
red beds or trap, would have no direct influence on the ground-water resources of Long Island 
for these rocks are not highly permeable. Of more importance is the present distribution of the 
two Triassic remnants mentioned above, for, as explained below, they provide a clue to the origin 
of the Jameco gravel, an important Pleistocene aquifer. 


While the history of the Triassic rocks themselves has only an indirect bearing on the hy- 
drologic regimen t>f Long Island, the Fall Zone peneplain is a factor of much importance s'ince 
it is the foundation on which was deposited the younger water-bearing formations. It was, as 
stated above, slowly worn down to a nearly level surface by the action of rain, frost, and run- 
ning water during what must have been a very long time. At the end of this process, low hills 
rose above the general plain to a height of roughly a hundred feet. Through the slow attack of 
percolating ground water, chemical decomposition of the bedrock was probably extended a 
hundred feet or so below the surface and over wide areas left nothing but quartz and clay in the 
upper layers. We know nothing now of the pattern of hills or valleys which may have existed 
at that time, nor of the factors which controlled the depth of the chemical attack. We do know 
fairly well the general position of the buried bedrock surface for drilling operations today strike 
bedrock usually within 50 feet of its predicted position. 
One of the most important chapters in the history of Long Island geology began in the 
middle of Cretaceous time, when the previously nearly level surface of the Fall Zone peneplain 
was slowly and gently tipped toward the southeast. This was part of a slow gentle arching of the 
earth's crust which extended north and south along the eastern part of North America. The 
center line of this arch runs roughly along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains, and in fact 
it was this arching which gave them their present elevation. 


31 


t 



The area which is now Long Island was well out on the flank of this arch, so that it was 
tipped away from the center of the uplift and was lowered rather than raised with respect to sea 
level. The upraised part of the peneplain to the north and west was quickly attacked by erosion 
and such streams and rivers as drained the area flowed more rapidly down the newly created 
slopes to the sea than they had for many millions of years. The sediments which they carried 
were deposited as the rivers reached the sea, and also on the outer margins of the land where 
the slopes were gentler than they were near the center of the uplift. The area that is now Long 
Island was near the strand line, sometimes above sea level, sometimes below it, but for the most 
part it was in a zone of deposition, and hundreds of feet of gravel, sand, and clay accumulated 
there during the next few million years. These are the Cretaceous sediments, named for the geo- 
logic period during which they were deposited. The material of which they are composed was 
derived by the erosion of uplifted portions of the Fall Zone peneplain to the north and west, and 
the bedrock surface on which they rest is the Fall Zone peneplain itself. 


THE CRETACEOUS SEDIMENTS 


The composition of the Cretaceous sediments tells something of the nature of the Fall Zone 
peneplain and of the conditions of deposition. The sediments contain, in important amounts, 
only clay, quartz and muscovite (white mica). The other minerals such as feldspar, hornblende 
and biotite (black mica) which were present in the source rock, are not found in the Cretaceous 
sediments, showing that they had been chemically decomposed by long continued exposure to 
warmth and moisture. The products of such decomposition are soluble salts, which were no 
doubt carried away in solution to add their contribution to the salinity of the sea, and clay which 
is inert and lags behind. This was without question the origin of the clay which forms so large. 
a part of the Cretaceous deposits. The evidence indicates such wide spread and complete decom- 
position of the bedrock that it seems probable that climatic conditions in the Cretaceous resem- 
bled the moister parts of the tropics of today where in areas like the Congo and New Guinea, all 
the rocks, over wide areas, have been decomposed to great depths. 
There are reasons for believing that the material forming the Cretaceous sediments was not 
transported any great distance. In the first place the divide along the crest of the uparching was 
not more than 300 miles to the north or west of Long Island. The headwaters of the streams 
which transported the sediments were situated near this divide. Another reason is the lack of 
sorting shown by most of the Cretaceous deposits. The beds of sand and gravel contain a large 
proportion of clay, and many, though not all of the clay beds contain streaks of silt, sand or even 
gravel. Running water efficiently separates and sorts the material it carries, as shown by the 
presence of thick beds of pure clay or pure sand in many parts of the world. Thus the presence 
of the two intermixed in beds totaling many hundreds of feet suggests that the water which de- 
posited them did not travel very far. This intermixing also indicates that the beds were not re- 
worked after deposition, either by the sea or by the streams which deposited them. 
There is little evidence available to show whether the beds were deposited in the sea, in 
bays or similar sheltered water, or on low lying river flood plains. Very few fossils have been 
uncovered in the Cretaceous sediments on Long Island, particularly of the type which would 
indicate clearly conditions at the time of deposition. 
In all probability the Cretaceous beds were formed along the rather indefinite boundary 
zone between a low-lying and swampy shore and a coast studded with shallow bays and islands. 
Rivers from the slightly higher land to the north washed in mud, sand, and some gravel which 
tended to fill in some of the lakes and swamps on the land and some of the bays and shallow 
water of the ocean. In New Jersey, where the Cretaceous beds crop out and the opportunity for 
study is better than on Long Island, the Raritan formation is regarded as a terrestrial deposit 


32 



whereas the Magothy beds are rega.rded as marine deposits. The intermingling of clay, sand 
and gravel, observed in the Magothy beneath Long Island suggests that here also it may b
 ter- 
restrial. None of the Cretaceous layers show the continuity of structure or composition that 
characterize most marine sediments, and most marine sediments of Cretaceous age eontain 
abundant fossils. 
This lack of continuity in the Cretaceous beds is of consideraple importance hydrologically. 
In the first place it is not possible to predict in advance at what depth water will be available, 
nor in what quantity. It also increases the uncertainty as to the quality of the water, and makes 
it much more difficult to determine the safe yield of any well, or the danger of salt water intru- 
sion into a well field. By and large it is necessary to treat the Magothy as a single hydrologic 
unit since the occurrence and movement of water in it is not known in any detail, except very lo- 
cally. A better idea of its mode of origin would make possible a far better understanding of 
many of its hydrologic problems. 
The oldest of the Cretaceous deposits on Long Island is the Lloyd sand member of the Rari- 
tan formation. How long a time was required for its deposition is not known, but the coarse 
sand and pebbles which form much of the Lloyd suggest fairly rapid deposition by swiftly 
moving streams or currents. However, conditions were not entirely constant throughout its 
formation, for there are locally one, two or more layers of clay interbedded with the layers of 
sand a:ld gravel. These changes in the nature of the material deposited were probably not caused 
by changes in sea level. It is more likely that they were the result of shifts in the positions of 
the streams which deposited the sediments, and the clay beds may therefore be local in extent 
rather than regional. That they are indeed not extensive is shown by the fact that the with- 
drawal of water from one bed of the Lloyd sand causes a lowering of the water pressure in all 
the other beds of the Lloyd regardless of any intervening layers of clay. In other words the 
Lloyd sand in some places at least is hydrologically a unit. 
One consistent variation shown by the Lloyd is an increase in its thickness from northwest 
to southeast. This increase in thickness down the dip is characteristic of all the Cretaceous de- 
posits along the Atlantic coa&tal plain. 
The generally eastward tilting of the Fall Zone peneplain away from the axis of uplift 

owered the outer parts of the peneplain more than the inner, and there was consequently a 
great9r accumulation of sediment in those areas which sank the most. As anyone unit is traced 
inland, it becomes thinner until it finally wedges out. The next overlying unit however overlaps 
the preceding one and extends still further inland, showing that the sinking of the outer por- 
tions of the peneplain was not a simple single movement, which took place in a limited time, and 
then was over and done with. Rather it was a very slow but generally steady process, in which, 
as the geologist commonly finds, sinking more or less kept pace with deposition. 
The original landward limit of the Lloyd sand member of the Raritan formation is 
suggested by its apparent wedging out in central Kings and Queens Counties. Following the - 
general pattern of Cretaceous deposition, the clay member of the Raritan, which overlies the 
Lloyd sand, overlapped the Lloyd and reached an unknown distance farther north. The still 
higher so-called Magothy formation probably extended still farther inland than the clay member 
of the. Raritan. However, subsequent erosion of both the Magothy and the Raritan clay has 
removed so much material that their northern limit today, in a general way, is the northern 
shore of Long Island. 
Presumably if the lower contact of the Lloyd sand were followed down the dip far enough 
to the southeast another group of Cretaceous beds older than the Lloyd would appear between 
the Lloyd sand and the bedrock. These pre-Lloyd beds have not been found in any of the wells 
drilled on Long Island. There is, however, a slight chance that older Cretaceous beds exist 
beneath the Lloyd in south central Suffolk County. 


33 



In the western half of Long Island, where the Lloyd has been explored by many wells and 
test holes, it has been found to be comparatively uniform. From this evidence alone one might 
suppose that it extended with little change under the eastern half of the Island as well. The 
Orient Beach State Park well, (S 189), the one well which has penetrated the Lloyd in eastern 
Suffolk County, and for which a reliable log is available, shows conditions however which are 
unique. Bedrock, here deeply weathered, is overlain by only 14 feet of sand and gravel. Above 
this is 50 feet of nearly solid clay, and above this 50 feet more of clayey sand with but a little 
gravel. On top of this lies 100 feet or so of clay which, without doubt, belongs to the clay 
member of the Raritan formation. The Lloyd sand in this well may be represented by the 
bottom 14 feet and no more. A second interpretation would place the next-overlying 100 feet 
of clay and clayey sand also in the Lloyd. This seems the more reasonable interpretation of 
the two, since, along the strike, variations in the type of material present in the deposits seem 
to be more marked than variations in their thickness. 
The two deep wells drilled at Brookhaven National Laboratory in central Suffolk County 
penetrated about 250 feet of mixed and interbedded sand, gravel and clay which in this area 
make up the Lloyd sand. This material resembles that in the type locality more closely than 
it does that found at Orient Point, but is in a sense intermediate between them. It contains 
more clay, both as separate beds, and intermixed with the sand and gravel, than is found in 
western Long Island, but less clay than was found at Orient Beach. The second Brookhaven 
well, although gravel packed and carefully developed, yielded relatively little water, about one 
third as much as has been obtained from similar Lloyd wells farther west in Nassau County. 
These are not enough data to give a clear picture of the underground conditions, and so, 
lacking the facts, no reliable historical interpretation can be made. Speculation however sug- 
gests that the Lloyd sand was deposited by a river which followed roughly the course of the 
present Hudson River. The shore line then was some distance to the south and east of its 
present location, and the Lloyd sand was deposited above sea level on the coastal plains of 
that time. Such a deposit would be coarser and would contain less clay near the principal 
channel of the stream. If this were the case then the poor water yielding qualities of the 
Lloyd observed at Orient Beach and at Brookhaven are not due' to local variations in texture, 
but are representative of the eastern half of Long Island. 
The Lloyd sand grades upward into the Raritan clay. The change may possibly be due 
to a shift in the relative heights of sea and land,' but the plant fossils in the clay, which 
suggest strongly that this too was deposited on land,-or at least not in the sea itself,- 
would rule out the actual invasion of the area by the sea. More likely then would be a change 
in the carrying power of the streams, or a change in the material available to them for trans- 
portation. Possible causes of the former would be a decrease in average rainfall or in the 
intensity of storms, a tilting of the land, or a slight down-folding of the broad arch whose 
formation had initiated this erosion cycle. W. O. Crosby (11) felt that all, or at least most of 
the changes in grain size, from clay to sand to gravel, and back again, were the result of 
changes in relative sea level. To this the present writer does not agree. 
The Raritan clay itself ranges from 50 to 300 feet in thickness and is composed for the 
most part of tough, compact, banded clay of many colors but predominantly gray and red. It 
contains some sand layers and very locally, if the well logs are to be believed, a substantial 
proportion of sand. These variations in thickness and composition are important, since they 
affect very markedly the extent to which the clay member of the Raritan formation seals the 
Lloyd sand. This clay seal both tends to prevent water from percolating into the Lloyd from 
above and traps in it such water as it may contain. But the clay seal is far from perfect for 
water descends from the Magothy as is clearly shown by the shape of the piezometric surface 
of the water contained in the Lloyd. This surface follows closely the shape of the piezometric 


34 



surface of the water in the Magothy and of the water table, except in areas where tjh.ere is 
appreciable pumpage. Not enough detail is available however to define the chief areaS of re- 
charge, although much of it seems to take place in west-central Nassau and eastern Suffolk 
Counties. 
The thickness of the clay member of the Raritan formation increases as the formation 
is traced down its dip to the southeast, but this thickening is very irregular. Part of this irreg- 
ularity may be due to the difficulty of determining the contact between the clay and the Lloyd 
sand. As reported in most wells this contact is gradational but covers a very short vertical 
distance. In certain areas, however, there appear to be beds of sandy clay along the contact 
which are described as clay in some logs and as sand in others. Since the contact between 
the clay and the Lloyd is placed either above or below these sandy clays, depending on the 
emphasis given in their description, an artificial irregularity may be given to this contact, 
where perhaps none actually exists in nature. 
Irregular or random variations in the position of the upper surface of the clay member 
of the Raritan formation occur where it is in contact with the so-called Magothy formation. 
On Long Island the contact may not be everywhere gradational and it is quite possible that 
there was a brief period of erosion following the deposition of the clay member of the Raritan. 
In New Jersey it is known that there was such an erosional interval, which suggests that 
following the deposition of the Raritan clay there was an uplift of the land. How great this 
uplift may have been, how long it lasted, and how deeply the underlying clay was eroded are 
so far matters of speculation. It is possible that during the erosional period streams locally 
cut completely through the clay member of the Raritan formation and that these old channels 
are now filled with Magothy sands which are directly in contact with the Lloyd sand. Permeable 
channels such as these would permit downward percolation of water into the Lloyd sand, and 
their existence has therefore an important bearing on the rate of recharge to the Lloyd sand, 
and also the shape of its piezometric surface. 
The few logs which in the past have been interpreted as showing the Magothy formation 
in contact with the Lloyd are however now held subject to other interpretations. There is in 
fact not enough information at present to say how deeply the clay member of the Raritan 
formation was eroded, if at all. The greatest single difficulty is in placing the contact between 
the top of the clay and the Magothy beds. Not enough is known of the manner of the formation 
of the clay to indicate whether it might be expected to locally contain sandy beds in appreciable 
number, particularly in its upper part, or whether the Raritan-Magothy contact should properly 
always be placed on the upper surface of a considerable thickness of solid clay. In other words 
it is possible that in those places where the clay member of the Raritan formation is believed 
to be unusually thin or even lacking, that some of the overlying sandy clay belongs more 
properly to the Raritan formation, and not to the Magothy as has usually been assumed. In 
New Jersey, where the Raritan formation is extensively exposed at the land surface, the upper 
part is commonly sandy and it shows abrupt. changes in composition, from layer to layer. 
If the clay member of the Raritan formation was indeed formed in shallow fresh water 
or on flood plains, then abrupt variations from its normal composition of pure clay might be 
expected. The broad flats in which the clay was formed must have been crossed in places by 
the streams and rivers which supplied the clay and along these channels sandy clay and sand 
might well have been laid down. In fact, if the Raritan clay was indeed formed above sea 
level, as its content of fossil leaves seems to suggest, it is remarkable that it does not show 
even more variation in content than has been observed. 
This uncertainty as to the history of the Raritan formation means that there are three 
possibilities, not mutually exclusive, by which water from the overlying formations could find 
its way into the Lloyd sand. The simplest perhaps would be by seeping directly through the 


35 



clay itself. The Raritan clay has a low permeability but water may pass slowly through it, 
and, because of the large area underlain by the Lloyd, the total amount of such seepage would 
be considerable. A second possibility depends on the presence of areas in which the clay mem- 
ber of the Raritan contains sufficient sand to appreciably increase its permeability, and so make 
possible an easy movement of water into the Lloyd at these places. A third possibility, as 
explained above, depends on the suggestion that there may be valleys cut through the clay 
and now filled with sandy material of Magothy age. The answer to this important problem 
will have to agree with what is known of the geologic history of the Island and also with the 
hydrology of the Lloyd sand. Up to now not enough data are available to determine the relative 
importance of these three possibilities. The true picture, when it is determined, will have an 
important bearing on the proper development of the ground water contained in the Lloyd. 


Following the presumed erosion of the upper surface of the Raritan clay the deposition 
of sediments was resumed. In New Jersey, the deposit which overlies the Raritan is called the_ 
Magothy formation, and the same name has been applied to the sands and clays which overlie 
the Raritan formation in Long Island. This correlation has not been verified and indeed is 
open to considerable question. In New Jersey, the Magothy formation has a thickness of 25 to 
30 feet near the Delaware River which increases to about 175 feet near Raritan Bay 50 miles 
to the northeast. On Long Island, 50 miles fa rther to the northeast, the so-called Magothy 
formation has a measured thickness of nearly 1,000 feet even though the top of the formation 
has been subjected to erosion. It cannot now be said whether the great increase in thickness 
from a maximum of 175 feet in New Jersey to over 1,000 feet in Long Island represents an 
actual increase in the thickness of the Magothy formation or whether the tentative correlations 
on Long Island have through error included in the Magothy formation several younger beds. 
The problem actually is more complex than this. The great majority of the Upper Creta- , 
ceous formations which overlie the Raritan in New Jersey are unquestionably marine. The 
beds contain marine fossils and glauconite, a mineral which is formed in the sea, character- 
istically at depths of several hundred feet, and in areas where other sediments are not being 
deposited. The individual formations in New Jersey can be traced over wide areas for the 
composition and other characteristics are fairly constant. In these respects the New Jersey 
material is so different from the so-called Magothy of Long Island, that it is doubtful if any 
attempt should be made to apply the same formational names in both areas. Certainly the 
conditions of deposition must have been very different. The Long Island material, lacking 
glauconite and the marine fossils, and showing marked variation in detail over short horizontal 
distances, may well be terrestrial rather than marine. Whatever its environment at the time 
of its deposition, its rate of formation was probably more rapid than that of the New Jersey 
material. 


Little can be deduced concerning the details of the deposition of the so-called Magothy. 
In many places the lower part of the formation contains beds of very coarse sand or gravel, 
not unlike those of the Lloyd sand member of the Raritan. However, existing evidence suggests 
that these are not a continuous deposit for these beds are not encountered in all wells, and 
even in those in which sand and gravel are found the -thickness and relative depth are not 
the same. In some areas there is a suggestion that the gravel lenses form a step-like series 
down the dip, each lens overlapping the lens to the south of it, in much the same manner that 
shingles overlap on a roof. Geologically this picture is logical for it duplicates in detail some- 
thing of the pattern of overlap shown by the formations themselves. About the best that can 
be said is that there are extensive beds of coarse sand and gravel near the bottom of the Magothy 
and that this is therefore an important water producing horizon. As to the origin of the 
gravels little can be said except that the coarse material suggests a comparatively steep 
gradient and, at least from time to time, a rapid flow of water. The absence of all except the 


36 



most resistant minerals suggests a deep weathering of the bedrock in the area supplying the 
materials deposited. 
Above the lower horizons where coarse material is common, the Magothy formation 
shows no consistant composition or typical cross section. Locally'there are thick beds of clay 
which can apparently be traced at most for a mile or so, only to lose their individuality and 
blend into the general succession of sand and clays. Such a pattern is more common in terrestrial 
than in marine deposits, but in any case reflects changes in the drainage pattern of the streams 
supplying the sediment and of the flow. of water in those streams. In a gravel pit at Port 
Washington a clay filled stream channel a few hundred feet wide can actually be seen. Changes 
in composition between clay and sand do not always represent uplift or subsidence of the land, 
as has been argued by some of the earlier students of Long Island geology. The evidence 
available suggests a relatively slow but steady sinking of the area that is now Long Island 
during the entire period that the so-called Magothy formation was being deposited, with a 
continuous accumulation of sediment, although at very different rates at different places and 
at different times. 


This brings to a close of what is known of the history of the formation of the Cretaceous 
beds on Long Island. At that time these beds reached well north of their present limit, possibly 
fifty miles or more although there is now little evidence on which to base such a figure. This 
did not bring to a close however the Cretaceous deposition in this area if one may judge by 
what is known of the geologic history of New Jersey, where several younger formations were 
laid down before the end of the period. 
At the close of the Cretaceous the sea retreated from the area that is now Long Island, 
the land was upraised and probably gently tilted once more to the southeast, and some erosion 
took place. It has been suggested that the sea advanced again over the land several times during 
the Tertiary periods which followed, possibly even as far as the former limit of the Cretaceous 
seas but no definite record of such advance
 has been found. 


TERTIARY HISTORY 


During the latter part of the Tertiary, erosion became more important than deposition 
and vast amounts of material were removed from the Long Island area and surrounding areas. 
Sea level, at least during parts of this period, was somewhat lower than at present and the 
resulting erosion created for the first time the important characteristic topographic features 
of present-day Long Island. The depression which is now Long Island Sound was first formed 
at this time, probably as the valley of a large stream which drained out to the east, although 
this question is the subject of a controversy that will be discussed below. 
Whatever the details may have been it is certain that the depression that now forms the 
Sound was located by the relative ease of erosion of the weathered bedrock which formed the 
surface of the Fall Zone peneplain and of the Lloyd sand. South of this depression, the more 
resistant massive clays which comprise the upper part of the Raritan formation formed the 
core of a line of hills the upper part of which was composed of the sand
 and clays of the 
Magothy formation. These hills, considering the lowered' sea level of that time, must have 
risen 400 to 600 feet above the sea. The slope south from this line of hills was gentle and while 
undulating, was relatively smooth. The northern slope, down into the depression which is now 
the Sound, was steeper and was carved into a series of short steep straight valleys more or 
less parallel to one another. These valleys, altered to some extent by subsequent glacial scour 
and partly filled by debris left by the retreating ice sheets, now form the embayments of the 
north shore of Long Island. 


37 



The location and shape of these hills formed in the Tertiary must be judged from the posi- 
tion of the upper surface of the Cretaceous sediments as revealed in well records. In a general 
way this surface corresponds with the present topography, although the surface today is every- 
where higher because of the blanket of glacial deposits which covers the older formations. In 
eastern Nassau and western Suffolk counties, the tops of the buried Tertiary hills are now en- 
countered in well drilling at 2-n elevation of about 200 feet above the present level of the sea. In 
these areas the present land surface lies about 300 feet or so above sea level. To the west, both 
the former and the present land surface are lower, so that in the central part of Nassau County 
the Cretaceous beds extend no higher than 50 to 60 feet above sea level. Along the western 
boundary of Nassau County, and in a relatively broad belt running west through the north- 
central part of Queens County, the surface of the Cretaceous is about at sea level and slopes 
off gently to the north and south. This surface merges with the surface of the bedrock in the 
vicinity of Astoria in northwestern Queens County, and cannot be traced beyond this point. 
The configuration of the Cretaceous surface in northern Queens has been the subject of 
considerable speculation. It has been the opinion of a number of the early students of Long 
Island geology (9, 11, 15) that a river, the so-called Sound River, which eroded the depression 
now occupied by Long Island Sound, once flowed from east to west. In Northern Queens, some- 
where in the vicinity of Bayside or Flushing, it is imagined to have turned south, passing 
through southwestern Queens or eastern Kings Counties and reaching the sea somewhere south 
of Jamaica Bay. The headwaters of the Sound River are believed to have included the Housa- 
tonic and probably also the Connecticut Rivers or the ancestors of these streams. The reasons 
for believing that this drainage turned west rather than east along the lowland that is 'now 
Long Island Sound are not strong. The Delaware, the Susquehanna and the Potomac Rivers 
have been deflected to the south and west where they cross the weak beds of the basal Creta- 
ceous and the reasons advanced to explain this coincidence are used as arguments to show that 
the Sound River must have done likewise. Of more force in suggesting a drainage to the west 
have been the well records which reveal segments of buried valleys believed by some to be the 
former channel 0': the Sound River. In southern Kings County for example, a valley roughly 
half a mile wide and 75 to 100 feet deep has been found cut into the upper surface of the 
Cretaceous beds and another similar segment of a buried valley has been observed in south- 
central Queens. 
The Cretaceous surface in these places is about 200 feet below sea level and the bottoms 
of the supposed valleys are about 100 feet deeper. There is however, no proof that these valleys 
ever carried the drainage of the Sound River. The valley segment in Kings County is poorly 
outlined even in the two or three miles near the center of the County where it is most clearly 
defined by well records. Attempts to trace it to the northeast into Queens County are blocked 
by a lack of data, and it is impossible to say whether it connects with the depression of Long 
Island Sound or not. However, available well records in the central and northern parts of 
Queens County do not show any valley in the Cretaceous surface reaching to 300 feet or so 
below sea level, but the spacing of the wells in this area is such that it is barely possible that 
the valley may exist, but has been missed by existing borings. This remote possibility is a 
poor reason for believing that a connecting link exists between the Sound, and either or both 
of the buried valley segments to the south. A simple explanation is that they were carved by 
drainage that originated on the exposed surface of the Cretaceous sediments at the same time 
that the Long Island Sound depression was being formed by eastward flowing streams. If this 
were the case the valleys would head at the former divide in north-central Queens County. The 
extent and distribution of these valleys is a matter of importance for they were later filled with 
beds of coarse sand and gravel, the Jameco gravel, and so form one of the important 
sources of water in western Long Island. 
The data so far available do not yet permit a reconstruction of the drainage pattern 


38 


'* 



-I 
I 


developed in late Tertiary time and attempts to do so, based on present informationJ would 
probably fall into error. One or two generalizations however may be made. The southern slope 
of the buried late Tertiary surface in Nassau County and in much of Queens County is smooth 
or gently rolling, and has a gradient to the south of roughly 10 feet to the mile. Over wide 
areas the depth to this surface can be predicted to within 10 or 20 feet. The northern slope 
of the late Tertiary surface however was far more uneven and has a much steeper slope, its 
gradient being about 20 to 50 feet to the mile. Prediction of position of the upper surface of 
the Cretaceous is therefore less accurate in this area. 


The late Tertiary surface slopes irregularly downward to the east from its high point near 
the Nassau-Suffolk County line, but the details of its shape cannot be closely shown as there 
are too few deep wells in this area. About at the site of the Brookhaven National Laboratory 
a central valley running east begins to take shape in the present surface and it is possible, 
although not likely, that this reflects the shape of the buried surface of the Cretaceous beds. 
This valley, which is now followed by the Peconic River and also, where drowned, forms Peconic 
Bay, may be due only to the deposition of the low ridges formed to the north and south of it 
by the Ronkonkoma and Harbor Hill moraines. Its presence gives the eastern end of the Island 
a markedly "drowned" appearance, but it does not necessarily indicate that the eastern end 
has been more deeply submerged than the western, or that the Island has tilted. 


PLEISTOCENE HISTORY 



 
The oldest Pleistocene formation on Long Island is the little known Mannetto gravel, which 
lies in the broad flat summit areas of the Mannetto and Wheatley hills and has been tentatively 
identified at lower elevations in some of the peninsulas of the north shore. These deposits 
resemble the coarser parts of the younger beds of Pleistocene glacial outwash except that they 
consist almost entirely of quartz sand and contain relatively few pebbles or boulders of gneiss 
or schist. These few erratics, though water worn and rounded, are in places all deeply 
weathered, so much so that most of them can be very easily broken and crumbled. Since these 
pebbles could not have been transported in this weak condition, they must have weathered 
in place, and the degree and depth of weathering possibly imply an age appreciably greater 
than beds' of Jameco gravel. Existing evidence suggests strongly that the Mannetto is early or 
mid-Pleistocene in age but does not enable one to date it more exactly. 
Most of the students of Long Island geology have classified the Mannetto as glacial outwash 
because it contains pebbles and small boulders of material other than quartz or chert. These 
are not present however in such amounts as to demand the work of ice. The bedding is well 
marked and the formation was certainly deposited by running water which had at times at 
least sufficient force to move cobbles as much as six inches in diameter. Most of the material 
however is sand and small pebbles and there is considerable clay and silt, particularly in the 
lower part of the formation. It contains no beds of till and if the material is a glacial deposit 
the ice sheet has left no unmistakeable record of its presence, although the deposits do resemble 
glacial outwash. If this is what they are then the ice sheet which supplied the water which 
formed them advanced to a line somewhere north of the north shore of Long Island but did 
not, as far as is known, reach Long Island itself. The depression which is now Long Island 
Sound probably existed at this time but may well not have been as deep as it is at present. 
Certainly there has been much erosion since the deposition of the Mannetto for the beds now 
found are but the remnants of a once much more extensive deposit. The original extent of the 
Mannetto is not known, and only a few poorly exposed patches of it have been found. 
More progress has been made in the study of the glacial geology of New Jersey than has 
been possible on Long Island. Three separate periods of glaciation have been recognized there; 


39 


*" Mannetto GlQvel ConsideIed By The U. S, Geological SUIVey to Be of doubtful Tedtazy (Pioeene?)" Age.. 



the J erseyan, the Illinoian, and the Wisconsin. The till of J erseyan age is very deeply weath- 
ered and only scattered remnants of it are left preserved on divides and on the crests of low 
hills much as are the :remnants of the Mannetto. The Illinoian till is also deeply weathered 
though less so than the older J erseyan. It also has been greatly eroded and only small remnants 
of the formation can now be identified. Beds of sand and gravel, the Bridgeton and Pen- 
sauken formations are in a sense associated with each of these tills but as they contain the 
remains of plants which grew in a warm climate they are regarded as interglacial rather 
than glacial deposits. These two formations are very similar to one another and both closely 
resemble the Mannetto in composition, degree of weathering, and in the physiographic position 
of their remnants. The Mannetto then may be related to either the J erseyan or the so-called 
Illinoian glacial periods of New Jersey, but so few facts are available that no correlation is 
possible. 
It is also possible that the Mannetto is a late Tertiary deposit and has no connection or 
relation to the Pleistocene ice sheets. This seems unlikely since none of the Tertiary deposits 
of New Jersey resembles the Mannetto. Far too little data on the Mannetto is yet available, to 
determine its origin, age, or present distribution. It is not possible to identify this formation 
in well records, or, as a rule in well samples, and it is even uncertain if the surface exposures 
that have been assigned to the Mannetto do indeed all represent material of the same age. 
This very real uncertainty as to the age and distribution of the Mannetto raises of itself 
no ground water problem. Where the Mannetto is found it is not found in contact with the 
below and with upper Pleistocene outwash or till above. It is not found in contact with the 
Gardiners clay, the Jameco gravel, or the Jacob sand. Under these circumstances it is probably 
included with the upper Pleistocene in the correlation of well logs, a confusion which is of 
little direct importance since the sands and gravel of the Mannetto are hydrologically the 
equivalent of the greater part of the upper Pleistocene and form part of the same hydrologic 
unit. Indirectly the confusion is unfortunate for an accurate and detailed knowledge of the 
Mannetto would throw some light on the early Pleistocene history of Long Island, a history 
which is of great importance in the solution of the broader hydrologic problems. 
The oldest of the undoubted Pleistocene formations on Long Island is the Jameco gravel 
which in the type area in south-central Queens County extends from about 135 to 250 feet 
below sea level. The formation is typically about 100 feet thick with its upper surface generally 
being about 100 feet below sea level. Nowhere does it crop out at the land surface. Locally, 
where it fills the buried valley segments in southern Kings and Queens Counties, it reaches 
more than 300 feet below sea level but such depths are uncommon. 
The Jameco gravel underlies all of Kings County except for a belt, a mile or so wide, 
which parallels the East River. To the east it underlies southern but not central Queens and 
extends eastward into southern Nassau County. It may extend even farther east along the 
south shore of the Island but there is not enough data to determine the limit of the formation 
in this direction. On the northeast, the Jameco gravel probably extends to Flushing Bay in 
Queens County but how much farther east it may extend and whether it is present at all in 
northern Nassau and Suffolk Counties is uncertain. One difficulty in determining the bound- 
aries of the J ameco along the north shore of Long Island results from the possibility of a 
change in its composition from west to east, and also from a break in the continuity of the 
. deposits. 
The J ameco gravel is easily traced through Kings and western Queens Counties for in 
this area it forms a continuous deposit and is overlain by a nearly unbroken blanket of Gar- 
diners clay. In this area also the Jameco gravel contains a large proportion of grains, pebbles, 
and cobbles of dark diabase (trap) rock similar to that which forms the Palisades of New 
Jersey. This high proportion of dark rock gives the entire formation a dark color, a charac- 


40 



teristic that is readily noted in many well logs. This distinctive composition gives added 
assurance that in western-most Long Island, the gravels which have been assigned to the 
Jameco do indeed all belong to the same formation. To the east the proportion of diabase 
apparently decreases and the formation loses this identifying characteristic. 
Along the north shore a second hindrance to the identification of the J ameco gravel is 
that it would be found only in discontinuous patches because of the very uneven surface of 
the Cretaceous beds on which it would rest. The Cretaceous surface beneath the peninsulas 
along the north shore is close to or above sea level
 so that the Jameco, which is hardly to be 
expected at levels higher than 70 or 80 feet below sea level, would only be found underlying 
the north shore embayments. Gravels which may be of Jameco age do indeed underlie parts 
of these embayments but as they are isolated pockets lacking continuity with the type area 
and have no characteristics which can serve to definitely distinguish them from more recent 
glacial deposits, their true age is uncertain. 
Earlier reports of studies of the Jameco gravel state or imply that it is older than Wisconsin 
and most estimates place it as older than Illinoian. If one accepts the correlations and descrip- 
tions of the pre-Wisconsin glacial deposits of New Jersey where the opportunities to study 
material of this age are better than they are on Long Island, than the freshness and lack of 
weathering of the J ameco represents a real problem. The pebbles and mineral and rock grains 
which it contains are universally described as fresh or only slightly weathered. The Illinoian 
of New Jersey is described as deeply weathered and the older Jerseyan is even more so. These 
glacial deposits however are all at or near the surface and are generally above the water table, 
whereas on Long Island the Jameco gravel is entirely below the water table where it has 
been subjected to a slower rate of weathering. Whether this difference in location is respon- 
sible for the striking difference in weathering it is impossible to say but there is a possibility 
at least that the J ameco gravel is very much younger than has been commonly believed. 
That the J ameco gravel is of glacial origin need not perhaps be questioned but neither 
has it been proved. The high proportion of boulders of fresh igneous and metemorphic rock 
points to a rapid and dominantly mechanical attack on the bedrock, which, in an area of 
moderate relief, suggests the action of frost or glacial ice, but glacial outwash is not the only 
type of deposit formed of gravel which has been but little weathered. The high proportion of 
diabase in the formation suggests that the source of at least a large part of the material was to 
the northwest along the present west bank of the Hudson River. Although it is true that the 
diabase once was found to the north of Long Island all the way from its present exposures on 
the Hudson to its present outcrops at New Haven nevertheless by the time the Jameoo was 
formed erosion had reduced the diabase to about its present extent and the source of the diabase 
in the Jameco must therefore have been in the area that is now New Jersey. 
Although the last ice sheet, and therefore presumably the earlier ones, moved in a direction 
a little east of south, and so might have carried in some material from the west side of the 
Hudson, the fact is that diabase is not a major constituent of the post-Jameco tills and outwash 
in western Long Island. The origin of the Jameco gravel in western Long Island then must 
in some fashion differ from that of the later outwash deposits since its composition is different. 
One explanation suggested by the very meagre evidence is that the Jameco gravel was 
deposited by the outwash from a retreating glacier while its ice front lay 2,0 to 50 miles north 
of Long Island Sound. At this distance most of the melt water would find its way into the valley 
of the Hudson where diabase crops out along the west bank of the river. Now at this time the 
valley of the Hudson was not as deep as it is today, for much of the depth of the present day 
valley is known to be due to the scour of glacial ice and loaded glacial streams, a process which 
was then just starting. Not only was the valley floor at a higher level than it is today, but it is 
probably also safe to assume that sea level was also lower, since a drop in sea level always 


41 



accompanied the accumulation on the continents of large volumes of ice. It may therefore be 
assumed that the Hudson was not then an estuary, as it is today, but a rapidly flowing stream, 
_ capable of carrying in flood time the coarse sediments which now form the J ameco gravel. 
While this hypothetical river of glacial origin seems the most logical source of material of the 
composition of the Jameco gravel, the main valley of the Hudson, then as now, flowed west of 
Manhattan and Long Island, and so out to sea. We must imagine that the river was deflected 
to the east, across Kings and Queens Counties, where the formation is now found, either by 
a tongue of stagnant ice, or an ice lobe which advanced from the west. Later in the Pleistocene 
time, probably during the height of the Wisconsin ice advance, part at least of the flow of the 
Hudson was indeed deflected east through the Harlem River, by the temporary blocking of the 
main channel by the ice of the glacier itself. 
It is a necessary part of the hypothetical origin of the Jameco outlined above, that the ice 
in the Hudson River Valley was at that time some distance to the north, so that the melt water 
would have an opportunity of collecting in the Hudson Valley, along the west bank of which is 
found the only obvious source of the diabase which forms such an outstandingly large part of 
the formation. One must assume therefore that the blocking of the lower Hudson Valley which 
resulted in the deflection of the river eastward over Queens and Kings Counties was the result 
of the independent advance of a separate lobe of the ice. This lobe might have moved out from 
the low lands of the Passaic River and blocked the Hudson near what is now the Narrows. 
Such an independent movement of a lobe of the main ice sheet is entirely in keepin with what 
we know of the behavior of large ice sheets. 
A second hypothesis of the origin of the J ameco gravel imagines it to be the normal out- 
wash of a glacier which advanced nearly but not quite to the present north shore of Long Island. 
A series of streams may be imagined to have flowed from points scattered along the front of the 
ice, spreading a blanket of gravel and sand for some distance to the south. The topography 
which must have guided these streams and their deposits is not known to us today. The depression 
which is now Long Island Sound must have existed then, but how deep or how wide it was, and 
to what extent it may have been filled in, it is quite impossible to say. The depression may have 
deflected to the east all of the outwash which reached it, or part of the outwash may have been 
swept across it into central and eastern Long Island and may underlie some of the embayments 
on the north shore of Nassau and Suffolk Counties. If this hypothesis is correct and the gravels 
were deposited by many separate streams, then considerable variation in composition might be 
expected. Whether some difference between the direction of the movement of the ice sheet of 
Jameco time and the later glaciations could account for the unusual composition of the Jameco 
in the type area must remain a matter of speculation. Since we know so little of the earlier 
Pleistocene history of this area it is possible that the J ameco ice was the first to reach the vicin- 
ity of northwestern Long Island. If this were the case, then in its passage down the lower valley 
of the Hudson, where we know that the ice sheets cut diagonally across the edge of the Pali- 
sades, this glacier might have been able to pry loose and pick up more diabase than the later 
glaciers. 
On the correct interpretation of the origin of the J ameco gravel depends the recognition of 
the formation in other areas. If it was deposited during the temporary deflection of the Hudson 
River then it is probably of very limited extent, and its composition would be much the same 
throughout. If on the other hand it was the direct outwash of an ice sheet which advanced nearly 
to the northern edge of Long Island then the area covered by the formation can be expected to 
be much larger although its composition would presumably vary from place to place. 
The Gardiners clay apparently lies conformably over the Jameco gravel although the con- 
tact has been observed at only one locality. If one accepts the glacial origin of the Jameco then 
the Gardiners clay presumably was formed during the following interglacial period. It contains 


42 



plant and animal fossils which suggests deposition in a climate about as warm as that found on 
Long Island today. In fact by far the greater part of the fossils are identical with those living in 
this area today, a fact which makes the deduction concerning the climate relatively certain but 
makes it impossible to date the Gardiners clay as belonging to any particular subdivision of the 
Pleistocene. However the general similarity of the flora and fauna of the Gardiners in the very 
few but widely scattered localities where they have been studied suggests that all the samples 
believed to be Gardiners clay came from the same interglacial period, even if it is impossible to 
say which one. 
In Western Long Island, and probably over the rest of the island as well, the upper surface 
of the Gardiners clay is 50 feet or more below sea level, except locally where it has been folded 
by the push of later icesheets and stands higher. The obvious explanation for its origin is then 
as follows. With the retreat of the ice which directly or indirectly deposited the J ameco gravel, 
the volume and force of the streams from the mainland decreased and they either were deprived 
of the coarse sand and gravel which the ice had supplied to them, or lacked the ability to trans- 
port it. At the same time the melting ice cap supplied water to the ocean, raising its level, an ef- 
fect which is widely recognized from studies in many parts of the world. 
It is not possible to say with assurance if the Jameco gravel was deposited above or below 
sea level but its general composition and distribution suggests that it was deposited above. The 
Gardiners clay however contains marine and brackish water fossils and it was deposited prob- 
ably in shallow bays so that sea level, when it was formed, must have been something less than 
50 feet lower than at present, and in all probability more than 50 feet higher than it had been 
in J ameco time. This inferred rise could of itself account for the quiet water in which the Gar- 
diners clay was deposited for any change in sea level, up or down, which brings the sea in 
contact with a gently sloping shore line results in the formation of off shore bars and barrier 
beaches. Such a barrier beach, formed after the most recent post glacial rise in sea level, fringes 
the southern shore of Long Island today, where it encloses a series of large bays. 
Similar bays, at a lower level and quite possibly larger, may well have existed along the 
south shore of Long Island, in Gardiners time. The source of the clay itself is something of a 
question. With sea level lowered 50 feet, an appreciably larger area of Long Island would be ex- 
posed to erosion than is the case today, but it is difficult to see how this area could have supplied 
the 50 foot thick clay blanket of the Gardiners, since so much of the core of the Island is /Band. A 
possible additional source of clay was the Hudson River, which need not have emptied directly 
into the bays in order to have furnished them with sediment. All that would be required would 
be a connection between the lower Hudson and the bays or quiet water where the Gardiners 
was accumulating. Tidal action then would suffice to sweep in mud, and possibly, in time, dis- 
tribute it as far east as the Nassau-Suffolk County line. Sources for the material of the Gardin- 
ers clay farther east in Suffolk County are harder to find. A red color of some of the clay here is 
responsible for the suggestion (15) that it came from the Connecticut Valley where the Triassic 
bedrock is red. Recent brief studies of the Gardiners however suggest that the red clay associ- 
ated with it is not part of the Gardiners clay itself. These studies also suggest that the Gardin- 
ers clay in the vicinity of the Brookhaven National Laboratory has a thickness of only about ten 
feet, indicating a volume of material whose origin is less difficult to account for. 
In several places the Gardiners clay contains the green mineral glauconite, the character- 
istic constituent of the Cretaceous green sand beds of New Jersey. This mineral is believed to 
form commonly in quiet deep ocean water, at many times greater depth than was the Gardiners 
clay. Pleistocene glauconite is uncommon in any case. It is no easier to imagine how the mineral 
could have been derived by reworking from the Cretaceous beds, since on Long Island the Cre- 
taceous contains very little glauconite. This however is the preferred explanation and suggests 
the Cretaceous beds as also the source for much of the other material in the Gardiners. 


43 



To the north and east of Long Island the Gardiners clay has been tentatively identified as 
far away as Cape Cod, to the south a correlation has been suggested with the Cape May forma- 
tion which is however largely sand and gravel. While the relation of these more distant beds to 
the type locality is hIghly speculative there seems to be no reason to doubt that the Gardiners clay 
on Long Island is a part of a more extensive formation. There is considerable doubt hQwever that 
it exists in the bays of the north shore and it certainly cannot be present there over very wide 
areas. Over most of the central part of the island, it cannot have been deposited at all since this 
area was above sea level at that time. Its distribution therefore in western Long Island is very 
similar to that of the underlying Jameco gravel, that is it underlies much of Kings and Queens 
Counties, where over wide areas the upper surface of the Cretaceous formation is well below 
sea level, and extends along the southern part of Nassau and Suffolk Counties. Along the north 
shore, it mayor may not be present in the bays. In. eastern Suffolk County, the Gardiners clay 
appears to be widely distributed where the less easily recognized Jameco gravel has not been 
found at all. 
The most recent work on Gardiners Island, at the type locality for the Gardiners clay, 
shows that there at least the typical fossiliferous dark clay is overlain by dark brown and red- 
dish varved clays. These varved clays are not interglacial, but glacial in origin and must have 
been deposited in fresh water at a time when the ice was in the immediate vicinity. The extent 
of these varved clays, or their exact relation to the other formations on the Island, is not known, 
but their presence even locally is an added complication, and the exact manner of their origin 
is difficult to deduce. 


With the formation of the ice sheet which followed the Gardiners interglacial period, prob- 
ably the ice which laid down the Montauk till, sea level must have fallen as water was removed 
from the ocean to form the ice. With the fall in sea level the Gardiners clay would have been ex- 
posed and further deposition prevented. In places it may well have been eroded, although there 
is no evidence of this. 


As the ice advanced still farther south, the sea level would at first have dropped a little 
more and would then have remained at about the same level, or even have risen slightly. This 
failure of the sea level to drop as the ice front approached Long Island, and the possibility that 
sea level may even have risen is due to the great weight of the ice, which actually compressed the 
"solid land" beneath it as it advanced. A few hundred miles in from the edge of the ice it is 
known that the land was forced down even more than the sea level was lowered by the removal 
of water. At the outermost margin of the ice it is not known which effect predominated, but it 
was probably that of the removal of the water for there is no evidence to show that the sea level 
on Long Island was ever higher than it is now. It would be 'Of considerable interest to -know' 
what did happen to the sea level around Long Island during the Pleistocene for this would help 
more than anything else to explain the complex history of this period. 
It seems safe to assume however that, at the time when the post-Gardiners ice sheet was 
advancing across what is now Long Island, sea level in this area was below the level of Gardin- 
ers time. Perhaps as this ice sheet advanced, but more probably as it retreated, the varved clays 
above the Gardiners were laid down in fresh water lakes. The southern margin of the lakes were 
formed by at least a low ridge of land on Long Island, possibly the terminal moraine of the ice 
sheet. The northern margin of the lake was almost certainly the ice sheet itself. 
The varved clays are apparently overlain with soft fluffy silty sand, probably a part of the 
Jacob sand, but the Gardiners clay, the varved clay and this sand are so folded and distorted on 
Gardiners Island that their relations are not claar. This folding was due to pushing by one of 
the ice sheets, possibly the Montauk sheet or possibly the sheet which deposited the Ronkon- 
koma moraine. 


44 



Attempts to trace the Gardiners clay and to identify it in well records or exposures in 
other parts of Long Island are greatly hampered by the complex and little understood history of 
this period, and by the inadequacies of the available data. So far we have no. evidence of any 
other interglacial deposit besides the Gardiners clay, so that any fossiliferous material of Pleis- 
tocene age overlain by later glacial deposits may be called Gardiners. Shells are not always re- 
ported in the well logs however, even where they are known to be present, and at many localities 
the only fossils in the Gardiners are microscopic remains the driller could not have seen. The 
varved clays as well as other records show that there are glacial as well as interglacial clays 
in the Pleistocene, particularly in eastern Suffolk County, and until much more work has been 
done the identification of the Gardiners is not possible in most well records -and even in some 
outcrops. 
Along the south shore of western Suffolk, and westward into Kings County, an interglacial 
clay can be identified in many of the reliable logs of sufficient depth, although the continuity and 
extent of the deposit is open to question. The best data are for the western end of the Island, 
where the formation can be mapped with some detail, a peculiar circumstance since this 
cannot be done in the vicinity of the type locality. 
Although these problems of the true age a nd proper correlation of the Gardiners clay and 
related Pleistocene deposits may seem academi c, they are in fact of some importance. In many 
areas, the Gardiners marks the bottom of the water table aquifer, and is the lower limit of the 
highly permeable glacial deposits. Below it lie the less permeable sands of the Magothy for- 
mation which contain artesian water, differing in static head and in composition from the 
water in the higher levels. 
The Gardiners clay grades upward into the Jacob sand, a formation which is not easy to 
identity in well logs, and the distribution and history of which are therefore poorly known. 
The best surface exposures of the formation are in the bluffs and beaches of the north shore, 
particularly in the eastern half of the island. It' appears to mark the transition from the clay 
of the warm interglacial period which precedes it to the sand and gravel of the glacial outwash 
which overlies it. It is possible that the source of the material was on the mainland, since some 
feldspar, biotite, hornblende and other mineral grains are present which could not have been 
derived from the underlying Cretaceous deposits. The silt and sand in the Jacob could not have 
been carried across any distance of open water, so that the depression of Long Island Sound 
must have been largely filled in. There is a suggestion therefore that the Jacob sand extended 
from the mainland on the north, south to the hills which form the present day backbone of Long 
Island, perhaps even farther south some distance toward the sea. The Jacob sand in turn grades 
upward into the Manhasset formation without any marked break. 
Along the peninsulas of the north shore, where it is best developed, the Manhasset forma- 
tion is 150 to 250 feet thick and is largely composed of beds of sand and gravel. These wer.e 
undoubtedly deposited as glacial outwash since there is a well developed glacial till, the Mon- 
tauk till, present in the middle of the formation. How far south on the island the ice reached is 
not known, but its limits apparently corresponded roughly with those of the later ice advances. 
The till cannot be traced in well records, although it has been recognized in a few logs, and un- 
successful attempts have been made to outline its distribution. This till is not thick enough, 
extensive enough, or impermeable enough to offer any serious obstacle to the downward move- 
ment of the ground water, although locally it may form some of the perched water tables found 
along the north shore of Long Island. 
The Manhasset formation forms the great bulk of the material above sea level north of the 
hilly central strip of the island. In the central hilly strip itself, where the underlying Cretaceous 
beds rise 200 feet or more above sea level, the Manhasset is much thinner, and its contacts with 


45 



the Mannetto possibly lying below, and more recent glacial deposits above, are difficult to deter- 
mine. In the southern half of Long Island it is quite impossible to distinguish between the Man- 
hasset outwash and the younger outwash gravels. 
The belief that the Manhasset formation is of Illinoian age, and represents an earlier gla- 
cial advance than the relatively recently vanished Wisconsin ice sheet, is based largely on the 
supposed deep erosion of the Manhasset prior to the deposition of the Wisconsin till. The mag- 
nitude of this erosion depends on how continuous and extensive a deposit one imagines the 
Manhasset formation to have been at the time it was first deposited. At present it is cut off 
abruptly along the margins of the bays and necks in Nassau and Suffolk Counties, and the bluffs 
of the north shore to the east. If the Manhasset formation at one time filled these bays and 
extended northward well into what is now Long Island Sound, then the amount of erosion has 
been very great. But the most recent ice advances, the Ronkonkoma and the Harbor Hill, failed 
to deposit substantial quantities of material in the bays and the Sound, and even appear to have 
deepened them locally, and there is no reason to believe that the earlier ice sheet behaved in a 
radically different fashion. 
The best evidence that two superimposed glacial deposits belong to two separate glacial per- 
iods and not to two advances of the same ice sheet, is to find between them deposits formed 
during a warm interglacial period. Granted that the Jameco is of glacial origin, then the Gar- 
diners clay, a relatively warm water deposit, proves that the Jameco and the Manhasset forma- 
tion must belong to separate glacial periods. But no such interglacial deposit separates the 
Manhasset formation from the overlying till and outwash of the Ronkonkoma and Harbor Hill 
ice sheets. Fuller (15) did indeed try to identify the muck, clay and fossil shells or wood in cer- 
tain well records as representing such an interglacial deposit, but a critical examination of 
these localities shows that the material is either Gardiners clay or may be explained as deposits 
of Recent age. In fact the highly dubious nature of the data that Fuller was called upon to use 
in trying to show the existence of an interglacial deposit between the Manhasset and the over- 
lying till and outwash, suggests that such deposits do not exist. There is then a possibility, even 
a probability, that the Jameco is late Illinoian ih age, that the Gardiners clay is Sangamon, and 
that the l\tlanhasset formation and the overlying Ronkonkoma and Harbor Hill deposits were 
all formed during the Wisconsin by ft.uctuations of the same ice sheet. Their common lack of 
weathering strongly substantiates this conclusion. 
Since the material overlying the Gardiners clay is all classed as upper Pleistocene in the 
geologic correlations of Long Island, it might well appear that the details of their history and 
formation could be of little importance in the hydrology of Long Island. In a general way this 
is true. The upper Pleistocene over wide areas acts as a hydrologic unit, water passing easily 
from one part of it to another. The upper Pleistocene is the source of most of the well water 
pumped on Long Island and the intelligent development of this unit cannot help but be inft.u- 
enced by a more complete understanding of the composition of its beds, and their distribution 
and history. 


46 



TABLES OF GEOLOGIC CORRELATIONS OF WELL LOGS 
IN LONG ISLAND 


Wallace de Laguna 
Nathaniel M. Perlmutter 
Geologists 




CONTENTS 


Page 


NOTES .................................................................,.,.......................................................... .............. 51 


KINGS COUNTy..................................,.....................................,......... de Laguna........................... 52 


QUEENS COUNTy..........................................................,..................... Perlmutter........................... 68 


NASSAU COUNTY.. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . ... ... ................................... de Laguna........................... 88 


SUFFOLK COUNTy..................,.......... ...,...................................... _....... de Laguna 
and Perlmutter......................,.... 111 




TABLES OF TENTATIVE GEOLOGIC CORRELATIONS OF 
WELL LOGS IN LONG ISLAND. NEW YORK 


NOTES 


Caution: The reader must keep in mind that all the figures shown, indicate feet above or 
below sea level, unlike the well logs from which they are derived, where all measurements are 
made downward from some point at or near the land surface. The first figure in the column 
headed "Recent and Upper Pleistocene" is the elevation of the land surface. 
Wells included: In general, a correlation has been attempted for every well log published 
in the "Records of Wells" bulletins published jointly by the New York State Water Power 
and Control Commission and the U. S. Geological Survey. Also included are a small number 
of wells taken from U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 44, 1906 and some previously 
unpublished records of recent wells from the files of the New York State Water Power and 
Control Commission. 
Map coordinates: The map coordinates refer to the five minute grid square in which the 
well is located. These squares coincide with the lines of latitude and longitude printed on the 
U. S. Geological Survey 1 :62500 topographic maps for Long Island, although the method of 
designation has been changed on the accompanying maps. Where the coordinates are followed 
by an asterisk (*), that well number does not appear on the map, as where there is more than 
one well at the same location, only the number of the deepest well or the well having the most 
satisfactory log is shown. 
Total depth: The total depth, in feet, is calculated from the land surface, regardless of the 
measuring point used for the published log. The bottom is taken as the lowest point described 
in the well log, and this figure is underlined in the tables. 
Recent and upper Pleistocene: This column includes all the Recent and youngest glacial _ 
deposits, measured downward from the land surface to the top of the Gardiners clay, the 
surface of the bedrock or the top of the Cretaceous beds. 
Reliability of correlation: The tables are based on the assumption that the driller in each 
case has accurately reported the nature and depth of the beds penetrated. The notations 
"good", "fair" or "poor" indicates the confidence of the geologist in his interpretation of the 
record. Question marks indicate that the boundaries or existence of a formation are uncertain. 
For a description of the geologic units and a discussion of the geology of the area, the reader 
is referred to the accompanying text. 


Abbreviations used in column "Aquifer Developed"- 
, U.P.- Upper Pleistocene 
. G-Gardiners Clay 
J-Jameco gravel 
M-Magothy (1) formation 
BM-Basal Magothy (1) gravel 
R-Raritan 'formation-clay member 
L-Raritan formation-Lloyd sand member 
Br-Bedrock 


51 




:i. 1t 
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PART II 
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS AND SECTIONS 




TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING OF GEOLOGIC, FORMATIONS 
AND AQUIFERS OF lONG ISLAND 
Russell Suter 




CONTENTS 


Page 
I The Problem ...................................................................................... 145 
II Method Adopted ............................................................................... 149 
III General Description of Long Island and Surroundings ,............ 153 
IV Surface Topography .................................................................,...... 157 
V Geologic Formations to be Mapped................................................ 163 
VI Sequence of Mapping ................................................. ...................... 167 
VII Description of Formations as Mapped........................................... 171 
VIII Maps and Profiles .....................................................................,...... 179 
IX Special Problems ...........................,........."....................................,' 183 




I 
THE PROBLEM 




THE PROBLEM 


Based on the geologic and other data now available to show graphically the various aquifers 
and other formations making up Long Island, this to be done in such manner as to facilitate 
the work of the Commission in the regulation of use of Long Island ground waters. 


To conserve and apportion the available ground waters of Long Island, particularly with 
regard to the present and future needs of the people of that island for water for domestic 
purposes, the Legislature has required that the Commission be advised of the sinking of virtu- 
ally all wells on the island and that the permission of the Commission must be obtained before 
most large capacity wells may be put down. 
To enable it properly to perform these duties, the Commission, for over sixteen years, 
has been accumulating data with regard to wells and ground water conditions on the island. 
In this work it has been greatly aided by the ccoperative work of the United States Geological 
Survey, the cost of which work is shared by the Federal Government, the State of New York 
and the counties of Nassau and Suffolk. 
By direction of the Legislature, the Commission in 1937 published a preliminary report 
on these matters (GW-2). ,As part of or in continuation of that study up to the present time, 
the following has been done: 
Data on all discoverable wells have been collected, the wells given official numbers and 
plotted on record maps, and the data have been filed and indexed for reference. 
Water levels in many wells have been measured and the results published annually by 
the Survey. 
All available well logs have been collected and such of them as appear to be reliable have 
been edited by the Survey and published in Bulletins GW-3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 and II. 
Considerable data have been collected on the salinity, hardness and temperature of the 
ground water, interference between wells, rainfall affecting ground water and many other 
matters, some of which are the subject matter of certain of the bulletins in the GW series. 
The rock floor under the island was partly mapped by the Survey and published as 
Bulletin GW-15. This map, as extended, is republished herein. 
As the basis for this work, the Survey has correlated, as far as possible, the available 
well logs and determined the elevations of the surface of the various aquifers and other geologic 
formations. This information for Kings county was published in Bulletin GW-17. The data in 
that Bulletin, amended and extended, are included'herein so that, as to that particular subject, 
this Bulletin is complete. 
All this material is available to the Commission and to the public, but it is not in a form 
convenient for many uses, and without rearrangement not too convenient for important studies 
which must be undertaken. Some of these are: 


147 



A. Determination of what aquifers are available under a given point on 
the island and the approximate depths to each. 
B. Studies of the hydrology of each aquifer by itself and determination .of 
the points of recharge, discharge and interconnection. 
C. Study of the safe yields of the various aquifers, how best they may be 
developed and what restrictions must be placed on the drafts upon each. 
D. Studies of water levels and the fluctuations thereof, salt water pene- 
trations, chemical quality, temperature and whatnot. 


Years ago it was held generally that the ground waters of Long Island were practically 
a unit and should be considered as such (GW-2-Fig. 12) (14). It is now well established that, 
although many and perhaps all of the aquifers have points of hydrologic intercommunication, 
they must be considered as essentially separate entities, particularly for hydrologic studies. 
Serious errors have resulted in attempts to draw contours of the ground water surface, lines 
of equal salinity and of temperature in which no distinction as to aquifers has been made. 
. At present when a proposed well is under consideration, it is usually necessary to make 
quite an elaborate study of known nearby wells, vertical sections through the proposed well, 
and by other means to try to determine from what aquifer it will draw water and what wells 
or points of recharge and discharge will be affected by pumping from the proposed well and 
the magnitude of the effects. This process has been repeated for practically each new well. 
Although it is certain that the data available for the geologic determination of the aquifers are 
insufficient in quantity, the wells poorly located for the purpose and the logs deficient in 
precision, it is thought that the united efforts of all the men most versed in the subject and 
covering the entire island will produce results far more dependable than those resulting from 
such scattered effort, and much time will be saved in having this general study available for 
all proposed wells. 
It is contemplated that as new facts come in, they will be plotted on the maps and profiles 
contained in this Bulletin and suitable corrections in such maps and profiles made. As long as 
a continuous study is projected, it appears that the true facts eventually will emerge and 
that no one should be led astray by erroneous tentative deductions from inaccurate data. 
Some are of the opinion that this work is premature. Perhaps, it would be if this were 
a scientific geologic study. The immediate situation demands action by the Commission now. 
It would stop all well sinking for decades to wait for additional and more precise data, and 
if the Commission were to try to do so, it would, by that very act, prevent the further 
accumulation of data. 
Particularly in view of the fact that hydrologic studies are urgently needed and that they 
are more or less impossible unless the limits of the various aquifers are at least partly known 
and can be reasonably assumed in their entirety, the Commission is justified for this purpose 
in going some distance outside of the established data. The assumptions necessary constitute 
a gross case of extrapolation. This, of course, is always dangerous and to be avoided as far 
as possible, but apparently must be done as a first approximation in making the hydrologic 
studies. As these progress, their theoretical 'determinations will be tested, corrected and 
changed. 
In view of all these facts the Commission stated the above problem and made arrangements 
to have this Bulletin prepared. 


148 



II 
METHOD ADOPTED 




METHOD ADOPTED 


Graphic representation of an irregular solid is difficult for all but the simplest forms. In 
this case it is necessary to represent perhaps up to a dozen interlocking solids which are 
most irregular. In the case of Long Island
 several methods of doing this have been tried. 
Geologists customarily map the area 
overed by a given stratum and then add a few 
vertical sections (profiles, from which the relief of the surface may be inferred). This method 
gives good results in proper cases, but is not suitable for showing a very irregular surface. 
Veatch (9) used contours to show parts of the rock surface and the Lloyd sand. These 
have been very useful and even rather prolonged extensions of them have met the test of 
well sinking in good shape. 
Crosby (11) drew a large number of sections across the island, projected on them the 
logs of the nearby wells and then drew profiles of all the strata in which he was interested. 
These sections have been most useful. The projection of well logs on to vertical planes, often 
remote, is intrinsically unsound unless the tops of all the strata are planes with the same strike 
and sections are taken in the direction of the dip. Any other condition. may lead to gross 
distortion. 
In this Bulletin standard engineering practice has been followed and contours have been 
sketched for the top surface of each aquifer and geologic formation. Such maps give the 
information in three dimensions but fail to show graphically the thickness of superposed 
strata so they were supplemented by numerous north-south and east-west vertical sections. 
These sections have been plotted on all of the coordinated lines shown on the maps but only 
a few of them are here reproduced; all arei available in GW-19. 
Contours are map projections of lines of equal elevation on the surface shown and contour 
maps consist of contours spaced usually at equal vertical distances apart. A person following 
a contour on the ground would travel continuously a perfectly level course. Contours also may 
be described as the successive shorelines of the ocean if it were raised or lowered by equal 
increments. From this it follows that a contour is always a closed figure, even though it has 
to go around three continents for the purpose, and except for purely fanciful conditions a 
contour can never be a loop on the end of a single line or cross itself. Contours swing inland 
in a valley and out on a ridge. They are irregular on rough ground, smooth where the topog- 
raphy i
 smooth. If close together, the slope is steep and vice-versa. A skilled topographer can 
so draw contours as to give to an experienced observer a rather clear picture of the contoured 
ground and not infrequently this picture will also reveal something of the underlying and 
invisible strata and of the geologic history of that particular area. 
Contours shown on the accompanying maps lack precision. In making a contour map of 
the ground, the topographer picks critical points of the landscape, summits, ridge lines, streams 
and breaks in slope and determines the geographic location of these points and the surface 
elevations at each. He then proceeds to sketch the contours by interpolation between these 
points being guided at all times by the appearance of the terrain. It is axiomatic that for best 
results contours should never be drawn by a man who has not seen the locality to be mapped 
I 
and that they should, if possible, be drawn ,n the field (as by a plane table survey). 
Not only is this axiom violated perforce in this case because it is impossible to see the 
surface, but also the points (wells) are usually poorly located for this purpose and the deter- 


151 



mination of the limits of the successive strata and even the geologic correlations of the well 
logs lack seriously in precision. Further difficulty results from the fact that the wells sunk for 
reasons entirely aside from the determination of underground topography only by remote 
accident happen to be at critical points. In theory, it is wrong even to assume that tpey have 
done so, yet it is virtually impossible so to assume and yet get any results. 
The distribution of wells is most uneven. In one locality they are reasonably close 
together and immediately alongside over a wide area there may be no wells at all. Thus, in 
Brooklyn practically no wells have been sunk in the Harbor Hill moraine on account of the 
difficulty and high cost of sinking wells in masses of boulders; nor have they been sunk in 
numbers in the Gravesend region and other areas south of the moraine where much of the 
water is salt; nor in Jamaica bay where, in general, water is not needed. In eastern Suffolk 
county the wells are few and deep wells even fewer for various reasons. Several of these 
areas contain important points of underground topography such as the limits of strata, deep 
valleys and possible points of intercommunication between aquifers normally separated by 
heavy clay beds. 
In drawing the contours, these matters have been considered and an effort made to show 
the general accuracy of the results by using different contour intervals, broken or dotted 
lines. Thus, it is known that the North Shore bays are deeply eroded in the older strata, a 
most important point hydrologically, but there is substantially no data as to this. To draw 
the nearby contours across these bays as though they were not there or to draw no contours 
in them would be misleading. Therefore, they have been partly contoured almost entirely by 
guess. The difficulty is partly overcome by using dotted contours which indicate deep depres- 
sions but are noncommittal as to the exact form of the eroded surfaces. When the wells are 
badly scattered, 100-foot contours are shown and these are broken lines when they are based 
on little or no factual information. Even when a 20-foot contour interval is used, the details 
of the contour lines are omitted. Thus, when a contour reaches the inner valley of a stream 
flowing across a fairly level and uniform plain, it turns upstream and follows the near valley 
wall perhaps for miles before crossing over and returning on the other wall to a point opposite 
the first turn. This gives a long thin loop or horn. Actually wherever a tributary stream joins, 
there should be a similar twig on this horn. At the upper end of such a valley there are apt to 
be several tributaries and the contours bulging downstream between these streams give the 
familiar "oak leaf" pattern. Where only the facts of the existence of such a valley are known, 
and neither the exact location of the main stream nor of the branches are shown by the data, 
a relatively broad simple loop is drawn on these maps. This is the best that can be done under 
the circumstances, and if the convention is known, should not be misleading. 


152 



III 
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLAND AND SURROUNDINGS 




GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLAND AND SURROUNDINGS 


Along the Atlantic coast line of the United States, there is a geologic phenomenon known 
as the continental shelf. This consists of a vast deposit of sands, gravels and clays, with a 
wedge-shaped section, resting upon rock and feathering out to nothing at the landward edge. 
The shelf itself is approximately 150 miles wide, sloping gently from the inward margin to a 
point where the ocean is about 600 feet deep; thence it plunges in a distance of about 40 miles 
to a depth of 6000 feet and better (GW-2-Figures 4 and 7). A large percentage of the southern 
portion of this shelf is exposed at slight elevation, composing the so-called tidewater sections 
in the southern states. At the north, the exposed portion comprises much of eastern Maryland, 
all of Delaware, South Jersey, Long Island and the New England islands to the east. In other 
words, appearances are that the northeasterly end of the shelf has settled. 
Long Island is the unsubmerged portion of the inner edge of the continental shelf fronting 
the Westchester county and Connecticut shorelines and separated from them by the depression 
of Long Island sound. It is underlain by a rock surface, sloping gently to the southeast, and 
that rock is exposed in the extreme northwesterly corner of the island. Over most of the area 
there are deep deposits of sand, gravel and clay resting on this rock floor and as yet uncon- 
solidated. Also along this margin of the shelf the glaciers have deposited a vast accumulation 
of drift which covers practically all of Long Island and extends seaward of it. 
In these unconsolidated materials the geologists have identified more or less finally a 
number of formations and assigned appropriate names to them as set forth in Wallace de 
Laguna's report, these being Cretaceous formations subdivided from the rock upwards into 
Lloyd sand member of , the Raritan, clay member of the Raritan and Magothy (?}. On top of 
these there are a number of glacial deposits representing advances of the ice and interglacial 
eras. At the extreme west end these consist of J ameco with overlying Gardiners clay; on the 
north shore of the island there is the Manetto, the Manhasset; over all is the Wisconsin. These 
subdivisions seem to be subject to change and the chronological sequence of the beds still 
to be in doubt. 


In these formations there are a number of water-bearing beds or aquifers which are of 
such extent and continuity as to be of economic importance, and it is the mapping of these 
aquifers with which this report primarily is concerned. These are Lloyd, two or three in the 
lower Magothy, Jameco and the so-called Upper Glacial, that is glacial deposits of an age later 
than the Gardiners clay. 
These geologic terms have been more or less loosely used by well drillers, waterworks 
officials and engineers until they have passed into the speech of the people but not always with 
exact geologic accuracy. In such speech, the larger subdivisions are ignored and the average 
person would not know whether J ameco and Gardiners clay were Pleistocene or Cretaceous
 
As this is not a geologic report but is written for engineers, well drillers, similar practical 
users and the common man, it has seemed best to adhere to the common rather than the scien- 
tific usage; thus Lloyd and Raritan are used for the Lloyd and clay members respectively of 
the Raritan. Magothy is not queried, and certain specific and well-known aquifers in it are 
distinguished as Magothy I, II and III. J ameco and Gardiners clay are spoken of as entities 
without reference to their Pleistocene classification. The rest is spoken of as Glacial or Upper 
Glacial, Pleistocene being a little too difficult for ordinary speech. This Upper Glacial is also 
held to include Recent on the principle that it may be interglacial after all. 


155 



This separation of J ameeo and Gardiners from Pleistocene has always been confusing and 
various names have been tried for the remnant, such as Post-Gardiners and Post-J ameco. These 
names are reasonable enough in Brooklyn and neighboring areas but are not appropriate in 
those parts of the island where neither Gardiners nor Jameco occur. The geologists have 
adopted the name Upper Pleistocene which I have translated as Upper Glacial when such 
distinction is needed. 
Many descriptions of Long Island formations have been written and well logs correlated, 
but the first attempt to show these data graphically was made by the sections prepared by 
Crosby (11); although these were made by projecting neighboring well logs onto the selected 
section lines and in spite of differences in nomenclature and the failure to show the important 
Jameco aquifer and overlying Gardiners clay under Brooklyn, these sections have been of the 
greatest help to this Commission. 
Studies of these matters soon showed that the surfaces of the various beds were too 
irregular to permit the projection of well logs onto selected section lines without confusing 
distortion, and in Bulletin GW-2 an attempt was made to show some of the surfaces by contours 
and then to section the contoured area. These particular attempts were unsatisfactory on 
account of lack of data and poor geologic correlations of the logs, but they did point the way 
towards the suitability of the method if contours can be drawn with reasonable precision. 


156 



IV 
SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY 




SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY 


Long Island sound is a body of salt water lying in a depression eroded in the landward 
margin of the continental shelf. It is bounded on the north by the concave, rocky coast of 
Westchester county and the State of Connecticut, on the south by the somewhat abrupt north 
shore of Long Island, curving in a direction opposite to the north shore and composed almost 
entirely of unconsolidated materials. On the west it connects with East river through Hell- 
gate. On the east it is limited by a picket line of islands, part of a glacial moraine, extending 
from Orient point on Long Island to Watch hill in the southwest corner of Rhode Island. The 
maximum width is about 23 miles, just east of New Haven. 
It is reasonable to believe that the combination of natural phenomena which caused the 
sound to be excavated did not cease to operate at Watch hill and that the sound is but the 
western end of a depression which extends far to the east. In that case the New England 
islands would represent the high points on an easterly continuation of the south fluke of Long 
Island which are high enough to rise above the ocean. It will be noted that Long Island 
itself appears to be lower at the east end, a feature common to the entire continental shelf . 
(9) (GW-2-Fig. 7), as above noted. In front of Rhode Island this shelf is entirely submerged 
except for isolated islands. 
Long Island sound receives all northward flowing drainage of Long Island, which is rather 
small in volume, also the drainage from a considerable portion of Westchester and adjacent 
counties in New York and all the drainage from Connecticut. The only real river entering the 
sound is the Connecticut itself which enters at the extreme eastern end. 
There are strong tidal currents in Hellgate, but it is thought that the bulk of the out-flow 
of water from the sound is to the east. To escape to the ocean, this water has to pass over two 
barriers, the moraines and underlying formations which extend for the entire length of Long 
Island and continue further to the east. 
Study of the Coast Survey charts shows that under present conditions the out-flow passes 
the inner barrier through Plum gut and The Race, just west of Fishers island. The second 
barrier is passed between Montauk point and Block island, and thence the water flows in a 
southerly direction over a well marked channel in the continental shelf in the general direction 
of the Hudson canyon. Perhaps it would be better to say that the above would be the course 
followed were sea level to be reduced by several hundred feet. With the present ocean level the 
escaping water, although generally following the above course, is spread out and diffused 
through salt water, affected by tidal phenomena and other things so it does not flow in a well 
appointed stream. It is probable that a portion of the flow is eastward in a well developed 
depression passing north of Block island. 
The configuration of the bed of Long Island sound is irregular and complicated. The north 
shore is practically on rock. Only as it enters East river is exposed rock found on the south 
but this serves to establish a sill to escape in that direction and under the existing channel. 
Little is known of the rock surface under most of the sound but as far as known, rock contours 
as given here are approximately parallel to the north shore. A well on Orient point struck rock 
at Elevation -654. 
A deep, rather narrow trough generally follows the 41 0 :00' parallel of latitude and extends 
from close to the Connecticut shore east of the mouth of Mianus creek to a point not far from 
the north shore of the island at about the meridian of Baiting Hollow. This starts at the west 


159 



at about 15 fathoms, drops to 20 fathoms north of Sunken Meadow, briefly drops to below 25 
fathoms north of Old Field point and thence continues easterly under the 20 fathom line. East 
of Old Field point the 15 fathom depth expands easterly into a triangular shape bounded on 
the east by the meridian of Fresh Pond landing, northeast of Calverton, up to a point about 
six miles south of Sachem head and Faulkners island in Connecticut, thence easterly as a 
channel as far as the meridian of the mouth of the Hammonasset. 
Starting at Hart's island-Hewlett point line (Queens-Nassau line) on the west the sound 
deepens to over five fathoms near both shores but does not reach 10 fathoms before the western 
end of the trough is met. It is constricted by a shoal running out from Eaton neck to meet 
another running south from Wilson Point (Norwalk) and again on the line at Stratford point 
(Housatonic river), Old Field point (west of Port Jefferson harbor), by a shoal running south 
from the first point and a good sized bar or near island in the center of the sound. The deepest 
point in the sound is off Norwalk; one almost as deep is in the above trough off Old Field 
point. The sill which would limit the drawdown of the sound were sea level to be depressed is 
a line running from Cornfield (Connecticut river) to Roanoke point (north of Riverhead) 
and is less than 15 fathoms deep. East of this line the outlet of the sound to the east is blocked 
by the extensive delta deposits of the Connecticut, of irregular contour, grooved and pitted by 
tidal scour. The submerged channel of the Connecticut runs easterly to The Race (off the west 
end of Fishers island) and thence continues through the intermorainal space (Block Island 
sound) through the southern morain between Montauk point and Block island. There is a well 
marked broad depression in the ocean floor running a little east of south to the HudsoN sub- 
marine canyon over 120 miles distant. The sill of the channel at Block island is less than 15 
fathoms, The Race is depressed to over 25 fathoms, and the submerged channel running east 
to the north of Block island is about 20 fathom
. 
Basically, Long Island is the unsubmerged portion of a gently sloping, slightly concave 
plain, the upper edge of which has been plowed out to form Long Island sound. The north 
shore is a more or less abrupt escarpment from the top of which the surface slopes to the 
south and east passing under the waters of the Atlantic. The whole island is slightly down to 
the eastward and probably continues submerged far to the east, the New England islands 
being part of the same general formation. 
The north shore is indented by many bays and harbors with intervening necks and off-lying 
islands connected by bar beaches. The south shore in general changes to swamps and lagoons 
at sea level, which last are contained by long barrier beaches topped by dunes. There is a 
westerly drift of sand all along these beaches. 
The north shore, except in the bays, is being eroded by wave wash. The bays are filling. 
The south shore lagoons are filling. The beaches are moving westward. From Napeague beach 
to Montauk point the south shore is eroding. 
The most conspicuous features of the topography are the two moraines of the late.43t Wis- 
consin ice advance which traverse the island from end to end with an intermorainal trough 
between them except where they merge and cross near Lake Success. The older of these, 
Ronkonkoma moraine, starts at Montauk point and runs well inland on the island to Lake 
Success, thence westerly from Little Neck bay to East river. In this last area there seem to be 
several deposits of morainal material; that just north of Newtown creek may be the main 
branch. To the eastward of Montauk point this moraine also forms Block island and others 
beyond. 
The younger, Harbor Hill moraine, starts in Brooklyn at the Narrows opposite Staten 
island and runs thence to Lake Success and continues along the heads of the bays to Port 
Jefferson. East of that point it crowns the north shore escarpment, and has been heavily eroded. 


160 



It forms the north fluke of the island and in more or less submerged condition continues as 
Plum, Gull and Fishers islands finally going ashore at Watch hill in Rhode Island. 
The greater submergence of the easterly end of the island has flooded the intermorainal 
space, splitting that end of the island into tw.o flukes separated by Flanders, Little and Great 
Peconic bays, Shelter and Gardiners Island sounds. In this interfluke area are Shelter and 
Gardiners islands and numerous smaller bodies of land. 
These two Wisconsin moraines are thought to be due to the two latest glacial advances of 
that age. An earlier and even more important ice advance formerly known as the Manhasset 
and which some suppose to have passed clear over the entire island (15) is now thought 
possibly to be Wisconsin. 
Still earlier glacial periods are represented by the outwash materials known as J ameco in 
the western part of the island and by heavy deposits on the necks of the north shore and 
Wheatley hills known as Manetto. 
All these complications in the glacial formations increase the difficulty df determining 
the preglacial surface. 
It seems that in some measure the present surface topography and dra
age channels 
existing in it were controlled by the earlier topography, and for that reason careful study of 
the present drainage system is necessary. 
The preglacial water parting appears over the greater part of the island to follow the 
earlier moraine, but the present apparent water parting is, with two large and several small 
exceptions, the newer moraine. 
In general the glacial material which forms nearly all of the surface of the island is so 
porous that rainfall sinks into it rapidly and does not again emerge until near sea level. This 
means that permanently flowing streams are not common but the drainage channels for such 
streams are well developed and are shown on the Federal contour maps. At least one stream 
that should be of considerable size disappears underground-Coram sink. Such conditions lead 
to heavy ground water recharge, and undrained depressions must be particularly favorable 
regions for such recharge. 
In the western part <?f the island where the youngest moraine is distant from the south 
shore of the sound, the northward flowing streams start out in the normal direction perpen- 
dicular to the moraine, but in most cases eventually turn sharply to run into the nearest bay. 
The depressions of the bays themselves all extend to the Harbor Hill moraine. The necks 
between the bays have rather irregular surfaces and the drainage of them also is irregular. 
South of the southerly moraine in the western counties, the streams run down the out- 
wash plain to the Atlantic and fringing bays. These streams are simple, fairly straight over 
considerable distances and with few branches. North and west of the root of Rockaway penin- 
sula they are oriented on Jamaica bay. Further east many run nearly due south, but there is a 
tendency for the upper reaches to run more nearly southwest, almost at an angle of 45 degrees 
with the general trend of the contours and then to turn south at or near the 100 foot contour. 
This is most marked in the case of East Meadow brook which rises in the interniorainal area 
near Syosset and flows southwest to a point northwest of Freeport and then slightly east of 
south passing through the village of Freeport into East bay. 
The intermorainal area drains through Gowanus and N ewtown creeks, Flushing and Little 
Neck bays, in that part where Harbor Hill moraine is south of Ronkonkoma moraine. At the 
head of Manhasset bay the condition reverses from that point nearly to the Suffolk County line; 
the space in question drains to the south through numerous streams. At the Suffolk County line 


161 



Cold Spring harbor drains a portion of this space, and has started to develop east and west flow- 
ing tributaries in it. South of the Huntington and Northport bays complex, the drainage is to 
the south through Massatayan, Carll and Sampawams creeks. A small area north of Commack 
drains to the north through a small channel which is part of the common boundary of the towns 
of Huntington and Smithtown, passing Fort Salonga. The intermorainal area south of Smith- 
town bay forms the basin of Nissequogue river and drains to the sound. A narrow strip just 
east of that basin drains into Lake Ronkonkoma which has no visible outlet. As this strip is full 
of kettle holes, of which Ronkonkoma is one, the surface contours may not show at all the real 
drainage conditions, and it may well be that Ronkonkoma is a part of the ancient channel to the 
south to Connetquot river while the northern portion actually drains to Carmans river. From 
Stony Brook to the line, Yaphank-Wading River, there is a large basin which, though well sup- 
plied with drainage channels, really has no visible outlet. Carmans r:iver rises near Middle 
Island in a valley between two ridges which extend from a point north of Yaphank in direc- 
tions slightly east and west respectively of north. The drainage channel from the west ceases 
in a kettle valley running from Coram to the south end of the westerly ridge, but the topography 
suggests that the underground flow is Carmans river. The remainder drains into Peconic river 
and the bays, but there is some doubt about the upper end of Peconic valley-say west of 
Manorville. This area is filled with wandering drainage channels and may well contribute to 
Wading river and perhaps to Forge river as well. This is the area of Camp Upton and the 
present Brookhaven Laboratory so that tests to determine the direction of ground water flow 
under the region might well be studied in connection with the problem of disposal of wastes 
from that laboratory. 
From Mount Sinai harbor eastward small ravines in the north shore bluffs have generally 
cut back through the moraine and drain small areas of the intermorainal basin. 
When the ice was still present, numerous outwash channels were formed, many of which 
are still in action. Most of these were described by Fuller (15), others are shown by the contour 
maps. They are: 
From Flushing bay via Maple Grove, Dunton and Three Mile Mills to Jamaica bay; 
From the head of Manhasset bay to the head of Jamaica bay through Floral Park and Rose- 
dale; 
From Hempstead harbor through Albertson, East Williston, Mineola, Garden City, Hemp- 
stead and Rockville Center to Broad channel and the Atlantic; 
From South Huntington on the west side of Massapequa valley to Massatayan creek and so 
to South Oyster bay; 
From South Huntington down the east side of Massapequa valley to Carlls river, through 
Wyandanch, to Great South Bay at Babylon; 
From the head of N orthport bay to Sampawams creek at Babylon through Commack and 
Edgewood; 
From near Smithtown in the valley of Nissequogue river to Connetquoit river. 


162 



V 
GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS TO BE MAPPED 




GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS TO BE MAPPED 


Starting with the basement rocks and proceeding upwards, the following formations are to 
be mapped: 
Solid rock surface. 
Surface of disintegrated rock is not to be mapped. 
Lloyd gravel surface-These gravels are an important aquifer. 
Raritan clay surface. 
Magothy surface-Much of this formation is water bearing. In Nassau county three Mago- 
thy aquifers occur in the lower part of the stratum which are so well known and appear to be so 
continuous over considerable distances that they are known as Magothy I, II and III. More study 
will be required before mapping of these aquifers will be justified. To some extent they may be 
indicated on the profiles. In places where the top of the Magothy beds is gravel and Glacial gravel 
rests on them, the two formations may be a single aquifer. 
Jameco gravel surface-Glacial-This is an important aquifer in the western part of the 
island. 
Gardiners clay surface-Interglacial-Not water bearing, but more or less impervious. 
The uppermost complex of beds is the Upper Glacial and Recent, comprising every deposit 
of age later than the Gardiners interglacial period. The surface of this formation is the present 
ground surface which has been mapped by various Government agencies and of which topogra- 
phic maps of various sorts are available (Coast Survey, Geological Survey and Army). This for- 
mation contains sands, gravels, clays and hardpans, but usually it will yield water to wells of 
suitable depth, frequently in large quantities. These aquifers have irregular depth, boundaries 
and thickness. Most are more or less interconnected, but many are "perched". No attempt at 
mapping these has been made, but the free water surface (water table) is under continuous 
observation and results are published by the Geological Survey. This free water surface has 
been mapped a number of times. 
All of these surfaces have been subjected to sub-aerial erosion except the Lloyd where 
covered by Raritan and perhaps parts of the J ameco and Gardiners. Such erosion should have 
resulted in a more or less normal topography of stream valleys, hills and ridges, but as each 
maj or erosion cut down the rock in places some of the surfaces bear traces of two or more drain- 
age systems superposed on each other. This particularly is true of the Raritan when not pres- 
ently covered by Magothy. The final erosion of the Cretaceous or pre-glacial surface is 
complicated by changes in sea level, cutting by ice and greatly altered by glacial streams during 
several different advances and retreats of the ice including deposition, erosion, re-deposition and 
re-erosion of glacial material. 
Raritan formations suffered the most from these multiple erosion effects and as mapped 
constitute a species of topographic nightmare. It should be studied as two entities with an indefi- 
nite connecting zone. That to the eastward of the limit of the Magothy was chiefly eroded dur- 
ing one major period and was then submerged by the ocean. The westerly end was eroded during 
three maj or periods and a number of minor periods and was submerged and re-elevated several 
times. The two sections are topographically unrelated to each other, but the western end forms 
part of the Cretaceous surface which is also the upper surface of the Magothy, as reshaped dur- 
ing the Glacial period. 


165 




VI 
SEQUENCE OF MAPPING 




SEQUENCE OF MAPPING 


It is quite evident that paucity of data makes the mapping of any of these buried surfaces 
most difficult. When it is necessary to contour some four surfaces lying between the roughly 
known rock and the accurately surveyed present surface, the difficulties are greatly increased. 
The chief trouble, of course, being to keep the contoured surfaces from intersecting each other. 
Reliance for a voiding this error was largely placed on study of the sections. The contours were 
first drawn, sections then made from them and inconsistencies disclosed by and corrected on 
the sections where carried back to the maps and the contours made to conform. Frequently 
special sections at odd locations and directions were often required for this purpose. 
As above explained, any attempt at drawing contours of these subterranean and invisible 
surfaces requires certain assumptions as to the hydrology of the surface in question; that is the 
location and elevation of the ocean and of the ponds and streams existing on the surface. On 
study of the situation, it appeared that the only one of these surfaces which gave promise of 
being so little altered by a subsequent erosion that the stream valleys would be completely 
masked is the upper Cretaceous surface, which over most of the island, is the top of the Mago- 
thy. Accordingly, contours of this surface were first attempted by making the following assump- 
tions : 
Sea level is assumed to be several hundred feet lower than at present, leaving Long Island 
sQund as a valley and exposing a considerable portion of the pre-glacial continental shelf, which 
surface lies at considerable depth below the subsequent glacial fill. 
Hudson river, constricted between the Palisades and the rocky hills of Westchester, is 
assumed to have been nearly in its present position, but at the bottom of a rock gorge several 
hundred feet deeper than the present channel. This river ran out on the continental shelf, pre- 
sumably in a deep valley; the upper end of this depression was wide and fanned out to include 
not only the present lower bay but most of Kings and part of Nassau counties. One lobe of this 
ran up from the Coney island-Gravesend region towards Flushing bay and must have been 
drained by a stream running into the Hudson in the lower bay. There should be a considerable 
notch in the rock wall east of the Hudson where this stream passed over it, but it has not been 
found. This lobe represents Crosby's Sound River valley. It is cut through to the sound or nearly 
so but apparently never was occupied by a stream of any magnitude. Another lobe covered 
Jamaica bay and headed towards Little Neck bay, stopping rather abruptly in Jamaica. The 
drainage apparently was to the south into the Hudson gorge. This is Veatch's Sound River valley. 
Further to the east on the south shore there must have been a number of streams tributary to 
Hudson canyon, but these have been covered by the westerly drift of the beach sand and barrier 
beaches formed as the ocean again rose and submerged this area. 
Long Island sound was a valley with gently sloping floor from the present Connecticut 
shore to a stream running easterly near the present north shore of the island. This valley floor 
presumably rested on rock at both ends, but could not.have done so in the middle. On the south 
it was bounded by a rather abrupt escarpment in soft material which probably was being under- 
cut by the stream and eroded away. Along this escarpment, numerous small streams ran north- 
ward to join Sound river. They deeply notched the escarpment and are now represented by the 
existing north shore bays. The western end of the ridge now forming the island was low and 
had little relief; there was a group of hills of considerable height near the present N assau- 
Suffolk line. Information is insufficient to show the condition in the present Shelter island and 
Flukes complex. Sound river perhaps ran out onto the shelf between Orient point and Block 


169 



island or, a theory which better fits the contours of the bottom of the Sound, the north fluke 
may have been non-existent and Sound river may have passed into what is now Peconic bay and 
out near the site of the present Shinnecock canal. The lesser drainage was not far different from 
that now existing except in so far as that has been modified by glacial action. It is improbable 
the Peconic valley existed at all. 
Having determined as well as possible what the shape of the Cretaceous surface was, the 
next step was to draw the contours on the top of the Jameco fill and its overlying Gardiners 
clay. 


The rock contours were assumed as those already determined by the U. S. Geological Survey 
and shown in GW-13. These were, however, extended to cover the sound and the entire area of 
the island although such extensions are decidedly problematical, they being determined in large 
measure by the present Connecticut shoreline, three deep wells in Suffolk county and assump- 
tions as to the general shape and slope in those sections where there is no information. 
It is then assumed that the Lloyd rested on or near the rock and contours were drawn, 
filling in the missing gaps by assuming the thickness of the Lloyd strata. The Raritan clay sur- 
face was then interpolated between the top of the Lloyd and the ceiling fixed by the deeper 
Magothy wells. 
As there is very little information with regard to anything but the glacial deposits in Suf- 
folk county, west of the hills south of Huntington, reliance was placed on drawing meridian 
sections and trying to determine from the glacial wells the probable ceiling of the top of the 
Magothy. This is far from satisfactory and all the contours in eastern Suffolk must be con- 
sidered as purely tentative. 


170 



VII 
DESCRIPTION OF FORMATIONS AS MAPPED 


. 



. 



DESCRIPTION OF FORMATIONS AS MAPPED 


ROCK SURFACE 
Except on the western end of the island there is little data with regard to the depth to rock 
and about all that it is possible to do is to hang the whole eastward extension of the contours on 
the wells at Coney island, Long Beach, Brookhaven Laboratory, Greenport and Orient point 
and to draw them approximately parallel to the Connecticut shoreline. 
The result is a concave surface sloping to the south and east from the rocky shore of 
Connecticut. On the island the only outcrops are along East river in Long Island City. This sur- 
face has a dip of about 70 feet to the mile and the deepest point at Sayville is at about Elevation 
-2100. 


This is an extension of the rock surfaces in Manhattan, Westchester county and Connecti- 
cut. It may be that it is as rough as it is in those 10caJities. This is true of the western edge of the 
island where the only real attempts at drawing accurate contours have been made (GW-2 and 
13) . 
It is known that the depression of East river was caused by solution of dolomitic limestone 
involved in two folds and faults, one on either side of Welfare island (12). Tunnels under the 
river have shown this solution of the limestone at very considerable depths and it has caused a 
good deal of trouble even during the excavation of the deep city water tunnels. 
A study of these contours seems to indicate that East river is paralleled by a somewhat 
similar depression further to the southeast end at a lower elevation. 
Determination of these contours is complicated by the fact that frequently there is doubt 
as to whether the reported rock was the top of the solid rock or of the decayed rock, which last 
in many cases is of considerable depth. Doubtless, the ordinary driller would report only solid 
rock, but this doubt is always present. 
It is thought that in Long Island City the Lloyd and Raritan may never have been deposited. 
Down towards Coney Island along the tip of the Hudson gorge deposits of these formations 
have not been identified, but they may have been deposited there and subsequently eroded away. 
Running south from Brooklyn Navy Yard there seems to be a rock ridge which is covered 
by a hill composed of Magothy, Jameco and Gardiners formations with a possibility of Raritan 
and Lloyd underneath. The persistence of this hill through a number of strata suggests that the 
ridge may be wider and longer than shown here, thus making it a better base for a hill. 
In general this rock is gneiss with interbedded Inwood limestone and in the northwesterly 
corner there is a heavy intrusion of diorite. 
This underlying rock does not appear to be capable of carrying water except in small 
amounts seeping through cracks along East river, nor does it appear that faults cut by the city 
tunnel under Long Island were particularly wet (Berkey and Blank-City Tunnel No.2). 


LLOYD GRAVELS 


This formation appears to underly the entire island except at the extreme west end.' 'rhe 
limit at present is roughly a line from Flushing bay to Coney Island. It is thought that these 
gravels were never deposited in the northwesterly end of the island, but perhaps they may have 
been deposited and then eroded off farther to the south. The upper surface of this formation 


173 



generally follows the rock surface but with a slightly flatter slope (60 feet in a mile). The thick- 
ness increases towards the south and the thicker portions are, in places, divided by clay beds 
into one or more separate aquifers. Not much is known about the Lloyd in eastern Suffolk, but 
at Brookhaven Laboratory it is reported that the formation is present but is not a good aquifer. 
The Lloyd has long been used as a source of water supply chiefly on the north shore from Flush- 
ing to beyond Huntington and on the south shore on the beaches, particularly Rockaway and 
Long Beach. In general these Lloyd wells have some artesian flow when first drilled. The south- 
ern wells are apt to yield water with a high iron content which requires treatment. The Lloyd 
well at Orient point is reported to be saline. As the Lloyd formation does not cross Long Island 
sound, it must, of necessity, terminate somewhere in that body of water. How freely it com- 
municates with the waters of the sound has not been determined, but it is known that salt water 
intrusion does take place in certain spots. There is no information as to how far out to sea this 
stratum runs. It is possible that it extends all the way to the escarpment terminating the Con- 
tinental Shelf. If this is the case, the outcrop probably would be at great depth and, if it follows 
the known trend under the island, should be of great thickness. 


RARIT AN 


The second member of the Raritan formation, officially known as the Raritan clay member, 
lies on top of the Lloyd gravel and usually extends beyond it so that these clays constitute a 
fairly effective seal except where erosion has removed it leaving the Lloyd exposed. The Rari- 
tan probably once covered most of the island with a surface slope of about 60 feet to the mile. 
Information with regard to it is scanty in Nassau county and almost absent in Suffolk. As this 
is not an aquifer, it is seldom drilled except for a well passing through it to the Lloyd gravel. 
This formation was exposed to erosion after it was laid down, was then deeply buried by 
the overlying Magothy beds which in turn were heavily eroded. This second erosion exposed the 
Raritan to the west of a line running from Oyster Bay to Coney Island except for certain isolated 
patches of Magothy and other places where the rock surface was uncovered. Nowhere has it 
been clearly demonstrated that the Raritan was eroded in such fashion as to expose the Lloyd, 
but this almost certainly happened in the sound, in some of the north shore bays and perhaps 
in the Gravesend region. 
After the main Magothy erosion, the exposed Raritan surface was further cut by outflow 
streams from the subsequent glaciers. All these erosions have given the Raritan surface in 
Queens and Kings a most complicated pattern which is particularly difficult to decipher at the 
limit of the overlying Magothy. Little definite information is available as to the erosion of this 
stratum where it is covered by the Magothy. Where it is not so covered it is described below. 


PRE-GLACIAL AND 
MAGOTHY SURFACES 


According to the geologists, the Magothy strata were deposited all over the present island 
in great depth. They extended northward into Connecticut. The subsequent Magothy erosion 
removed vast quantities of this fresh deposit including all of it in Connecticut. The excavation 
of Long Island sound, of the North Shore bays, numerous stream valleys along the south shore 
and in the west end of the island exposed large areas of Raritan, rock and possibly Lloyd. This 
resulted in a land mass somewhat similar to that now existing, except that it was lower by the 
thickness of the glacial deposits. It probably had considerably more relief and variation of topo- 
graphic features than the present island, and lacked the North fluke. The water parting was 
probably about on the line of the older Wisconsin moraine, and there was a group of hills, still 
visible, on or near the Nassau-Suffolk county line. 
To draw contours intelligently, it is necessary to attempt to restore the drainage plan. This 


174 



must be very vague over the eastern part of the island where there are but few Magothy wells. 
More can be done at the western end where the streams were directed either towards the sound 
or the head of the Hudson canyon. These results disclosed a rather unusual pattern. 
Hudson river is presumed to have been at its present location emptying into a vast canyon 
in the Continental Shelf. The head of this gorge appears to have extended far enough north and 
west to include Jamaica bay and the heavily eroded region north of Coney island. 
East river, which still occupies a rock valley, must have been in the same position as at 
present except at its lower end where the existing stream has been pushed to the east of its 
original valley by glacial material. It is assumed that East river ran directly into the Hudson 
somewhere near Governors island. 
Starting east of the present Hellgate, a wide, but not overdeep, valley extended eastward, 
which valley later was modified and submerged as the present Long Island sound. The final ero- . 
sion of this valley must have been made by an easterly flowing stream (Sound river) which lay 
close to the present north shore of the island. This stream, of course, picked up all the drainage 
from the north. On the south it had many small tributaries running in short and steep courses 
down the rather abrupt northern slope of the prospective island. These streams ran in narrow 
and deep gorges originating near the height of land and cutting deeply into the northward 
facing scarp. These are the present North Shore bays and quite likely there were more of them 
at that time as some may have been buried or washed away in the Suffolk county area. 
How far west Sound river originated is unknown. Somewhere it must have turned south 
across the axis of the island. Various points where this might have happened suggest them- 
selves, including the Nissequogue-Connetquot area, Carmans river, Peconic bay and the gap west 
of Block island. It may even have continued in an extension of the sound westerly to another 
canyon in the Continental Shelf which lies east of Cape Cod. This last idea seems improbable as 
not providing enough slope to enable the river to accomplish the erosion of the sound. 
In the west end the streams were oriented on the Hudson canyon and traces of such 
drainage seem still faintly to show through the overlying drift (East Meadow brook and 
others). Three fair-sized valleys appear in this region. 
The westernmost valley is a small one parallel to East river and not far distant from it, 
but at a somewhat lower level. This may represent the remnants of the valley of a stream which 
came down from north of the Sound. Some remnants of Magothy are west of it, but in general 
it is in the Raritan and lower strata. 
East of this is a more considerable valley heading up towards Flushing bay. There are 
indications that this later served as a glacial outwash channel. This is Crosby's "Sound River 
Valley" . 
Still farther east is a more important valley running somewhat west of south and so deeply 
cut as to suggest that in places it extends down to the Raritan. This valley heads up somewhat 
abruptly at the water parting, suggesting that it was modified by glacial outwash also. This is 
Veatch's "Sound River Valley". 
Both Professors Veatch and Crosby advanced the theory that the final pre-glacial exca- 
vation of the Sound was made by the Connecticut which they assumed turned westward and 
then southward and ran into the Hudson canyon. They were aware of the two last described 
indentations in the pre-glacial surface and assumed that these extended farther to the north 
and east in sufficient size and at an elevation low enough before hitting rock to cross the 
island. The many wells which have been sunk since those times seem, as shown by the map, 
to negative those theories, and it now appears that Sound river in this sense did not exist. No 
new theory has been offered. This is a most important question as any such valley crossing the 
island might well make a cross-connection with most, if not all, of the aquifers (GW-2, Fig. 13). 


175 



This important unsolved problem is further commented upon below. 
As above noted, the eroded Magothy surface was quite irregular and over considerable 
areas at the western end of the island it was removed entirely. It was also deeply channeled by 
numerous streams; the north shore bays seem to have cut into it as far back as the then 
existing water parting near the southern ridge and to the north cutting down either to the 
rock or to whatever level matched the easterly flowing Sound river. This particular point has 
not yet been determined and is of importance as these ravines may have cut through all the 
Cretaceous strata to the rock, were later filled more or less with glacial material and thus may 
have brought the salt water of the sound practically into contact with all the Cretaceous aqui- 
fers, as has been particularly exemplified by one of the Lloyd wells at Port Washington. It is 
also quite probable that similar ravines once were formed further to the east, such formations 
as Mount Sinai harbor and Wading river possibly representing the last remnants of such 
ra vines. It is well also to note that the north shore of the south fluke contains signs of similar 
erosion-particularly Three Mile harbor and the extension thereof under Gardiners Island 
sound. Furthermore, on the south shore, east of Babylon, there appear to be evidences of a 
large number of deeply cut southward trending valleys which subsequently have been filled by 
glacial material which ha
 seitled, giving rise to the basins with peculiar oak-leaf contours 
so prevalent in Suffolk county. All of this is quite indefinite, and it should be noted that although 
these indentations are shown by borings well inland from the sout
 shore, the Magothy wells 
along the bar beach are rather consistently shallower. Just what the drainage system was 
cannot be told, but can be assumed either as draining across the bar beach between the scat- 
tered borings or that there was a lateral valley similar to Peconic river in Great South bay and 
extending eastward. This last sounds rather fanciful, but at least should be borne in mind as 
additional information comes in. 


JAMECO 


This formation is stated to be the earliest of the glacial series and it is supposed that it is 
material originating up the Hudson valley transported by the outwash from an ice cap which 
never reached the island and to have thus been dumped in the positions now found. 
It is of considerable but unknown depth and extent in Kings county and extends well along 
the south shore of Kings and Nassau counties. 
Many of the boundaries of the J ameco are quite indefinite; particularly near N ewtown 
creek where it is in unexplored territory, under a moraine and anyone's guess as to where it 
is. The well logs indicate a narrow neck extending to the north, but the top of the deposit so 
shown does not meet the contours worked out for the underlying Raritan. By assuming -it to 
be spread out in territory where there is no information, a fairly good fit was obtained. All 
of this is rather poorly supported guesswork. This deposit has been studied as a construction 
problem and as such is most baffling. In western Kings it is pretty well piled up and not impos- 
sible, but farther east it forms a sort of lining to a depression which could occur only if it 
were poured over the edge of the depression. This would involve transportation over a fairly 
high part of the island. It might have been so deposited as to fill the depression and subsequently 
to have been eroded out, but this seems fanciful. 
In the Gravesend region there is a considerable hill resting on a similar hill of Magothy 
materials. This hill in turn is capped by Gardiners. Although this hill must have resulted from 
the erosion of the deposited strata, it is so shaped that erosion is not evident. 
All this must remain a puzzle until more evidence comes in. 
This formation has not been identified elsewhere in the island but it may occur and on 
account of changed source of origin it may not have been readily identified. 


176 



In Kings county, particularly, the Jameco was once a good aquifer but now has largely 
been salted by overpumping and perhaps also by lack of recharge from rainfall. This area is 
paved and sewered in such manner that a large percentage of the rainfall"is carried at once 
to salt water. 


GARDINERS CLAY 


This formation is said to have been laid down in lagoons similar to Jamaica, Great South 
and other bays now existing almost continuously along the south shore of the island. It is apt 
to be dark in color, contains much organic matter and is rich in fossils. Shells found in it appear 
to be those of oysters, clams, mussels, scallops, etc., the same or very similar to those now 
existing in the present lagoon. Unfortunately, the geologists find it difficult to identify this 
clay in well logs and the real extent of it has not been determined. 
The type locality from which this stratum was named is Gardiners island where it out- 
crops but where it has been much distorted by ice shove so that the strata are vertical instead 
of horizontal. It is best known in the area under Brooklyn and in that neighborhood where 
the Gardiners lies on the J ameco aquifer and under the upper glacial deposits. 
These two deposits were correlated as being the same, and it was assumed from reasoning 
by analogy and from the present conditions that the two were more or less connected along 
the south shore of the island. Fuller (15) noted clay outcrops in the north shore bluffs which 
he believed to be the same formation, but for a period the geologists abandoned the idea that 
this stratum was continuous. Borings at Brookhaven Laboratory showed Gardiners and led to 
reconsideration of the correlations which are now held to show Gardiners in a number of 
scattered locations. It is now assumed to be nearly continuous for the whole length of the 
south shore resting on Magothy and not rising above Elevation -60, but the information with 
regard to it is insufficient to justify attempting to draw contours on it. 
Under Brooklyn the Gardiners surface more or less parallels that of Jameco much as . 
though the former were a blanket spread over the latter formation and generally extends out- 
side of it for some distance. This gives considerable slope to the surface. Still reasoning from 
analogy and present conditions, it is improbable that this formation was deposited in a lagoon 
of fixed location. So to assume would require a confining bar beach of unusual height and the 
deposit of the clay in relatively deep water. 
As it is believed to be an interglacial formation, it must first have been laid down during 
a period when the melting ice sheet was replenishing the ocean and sea level was rising. It is, 
therefore, suggested that the original lagoons were formed on the Continental Shelf farther 
south and at a materially lower elevation than the present northerly limit of this stratum. As 
sea level rose
 the bar beach was forced in a northerly direction over the clay deposited in the 
original lagoon and the lagoon itself was kept moving inward and upwards until the next 
advance of an ice sheet caused recession of sea water. This would give a sloping formation 
terminating in a flat top and the sloping portion would be covered by beach and dune sand. 
The top would not be covered but left as a level swampy area until eroded by the {)Utwash of 
the advancing ice and eventually buried by glacial drift (GW-2, Fig. 6). 
It is regrettable that the northerly limit of this clay in the western part of the island 
lies in a well-less region under the Harbor Hill moraine and can be only guessed at. 
Under Brooklyn this formation is highly important hydrologically. Farther east its 
importance cannot be determined until more is known of its location and characteristics. It 
is probable, however, that over a broad belt along the south shore it provides a more or less 
impervious barrier between the Upper Glacial and Magothy, a condition which might have 


177 



considerable importance in the case of recharge of well water even though the upper and lower 
strata were hydrologically connected north of the edge of the clay sheet. This question needs 
further study, both geologic and hydrostatic. 


GLACIAL 


Glacial deposits on the island have been ascribed to a number of advances and retreats 
of continental ice sheets, some of which have not extended beyond the Sound but at least one 
of which is believed to have covered the entire island. Despite these numerous advances, only 
one interglacial period (Gardiners) has been described and only two terminal moraines are 
apparent. These last are assumed to mark two stages in the latest ice advance (Wisconsin). 
The location of other moraines, if such there be, is a matter of some importance from the 
hydrologic standpoint. 
Certain other features of the glacial materials and surface together with some features 
of the lower strata are noted below. 


. 


178 



VIII 
MAPS AND PROFILES 




LIST OF PLATES 


GEOLOGIC FORMATIONS OF LONG ISLAND 


PLATE 
I 
II 
III 
IV 
V 
VI 
VII 
VIII 
IX 
X 
XI 
XII 
XIII 
XIV 
XV 
XVI 
XVII 
XVIII 
XIX 
XX 
XXI 
XXII 
XXIII 
XXIV 


General Topographic Map 
Surface Drainage-Western Section 
Surface Drainage-Central Section 
Surface Drainage-Eastern Section 
Location of Wells-Western Section 
Location of Wells-Central Section 
Location of Wells-Eastern Section 
Rock Surface-Western Section 
Rock Surface-Central Section 
Rock Surface-Eastern Section 
Lloyd Surface-Western Section 
Lloyd Surface-Central Section 
Lloyd Surface-Eastern Section 
Raritan Surface-Western Section 
Raritan Surfa!3e-Central Section 
Raritan Surface-Eastern Section 
Magothy Surface-Western Section 
Magothy Surface-Central Section 
Magothy Surface-Eastern Section 
Jameco Surface-Western Section 
Gardiners Surface-Western Section 
Profiles-Lat. 40°: 05' N; Long. 73°: 55' W 
Profiles-Lat. 40°: 40' N; Long. 73°: 25' W 
Profiles-Long. 73°: 35'; 73°: 20'; 73°: 05' W 


181